The carbon footprint and gas emissions             No Of Abstract is : 14  
Coordinator : Prof. Tarek Zaki Hassan Fouda
Faculty : Professor and Head of Agricultural Engineering Department, Tanta University
Email :
Mobile : 01000350643
  The carbon footprint is the total greenhouse gases resulting from industrial, service or personal emissions, and its measurement is done in an effort to reduce the negative effects of those emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions arising from a wide range of human activities that cause climate change, as their concentrations increase in the atmosphere. These emissions mainly include carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum and natural gas mainly; Therefore, different emissions are generated for different sectors. (Agriculture - aviation - buildings and construction - digital sector - healthcare - steel and aluminum - electricity generation - plastics - sanitation sector - tourism - trucking and transportation – deforestation  
  Tarek FOUDA, Abd-Elrahman ELRAYES and Abd-Elhameed ELHANAFY   
  Faculty of agriculture - agriculture engineering department   
This study discusses the result of a life cycle assessment (LCA) for three Egyptian aquaculture farms categorized as semi-intensive culture. The cradle-to-grave system was used to calculate the overall carbon footprint of fish unit production. The major data came from a study of three feed factories in Egypt, which included a wide range of feed manufacturing and agricultural practises in order to reveal the varied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Pre-farm, farming, and post-farming were the three stages of the life cycle assessment. Feed manufacture, which was primarily tied to the production and processing of raw materials, was the largest source of GHG emissions for all three processes. GHG emissions were also produced during the transport of raw materials to the factory. GHG emissions were also produced during the transportation of raw materials to manufacturers, as well as feed from factories to fish farms, via ship or road. Energy consumption in feed factories varies due to variances in design technology and manufacturing efficiencies. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) have a significant influence on GHG emissions since more feed is required to produce one kilogramme of fish. The kind of packaging material and energy utilised in the factories had an impact on GHG emissions, as each type had a distinct emission factor (EF). Aside from fingerling production, there are direct and indirect N2O emissions, as well as post-farming operations like packaging, ice serving method, and customer transportation. The conclusions of the investigation revealed that According to the results of the study, the emissions linked with the three farms varied greatly. Hanafy farm had the greatest emissions, with 3.265 kg CO2e/kg fish and 50.917 tonnes CO2e/Season, followed by Hashim farm with 2.259 kg CO2e/kg fish and 45.829 tonnes CO2e/Season, and finally Aly farm with 2.223 kg CO2e/kg fish and 38.864 tonnes CO2e/Season.      

  El Taher Youssef   
  Agron.Dep., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ.   
Obtaining the maximum yield of different crops mainly depends on the proper agricultural practices especially irrigation and fertilization. This research aimed to investigate the response of potato crop (Sponta variety) to water and nitrogen deficiency. A field experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen deficiency on potato properties including tuber yield, chlorophyll concentration, and water use efficiency (WUE). The experimental design was set up as a split plot design with three replicates. The obtained results demonstrated that both water and nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected potato productivity. The amount of irrigation water and nitrogen had positive significant effects on yield and chlorophyll. The highest potato yield and chlorophyll of 11.56 Mg/ha and 48.9 respectively were recorded with the treatment received 1.25 ETc seasonal water and 200 kg N whilst the lowest ones were observed with the treatments received 0.50 ETc seasonal water and 0 kg N. The amount of irrigation water had a negative significant effect on water use efficiency. The highest level of irrigation produced the lowest water use efficiency. The greatest WUE obtained among all treatments was the one received the lowest amount of irrigation water. The results therefore showed that under sprinkler irrigation potato yield can be maximised by adding the optimum levels of both irrigation regime and nitrogen fertilization.      

  Nourhan KASSAB1, Tarek FOUDA1   
  Agron.Dep., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ.   
A study was conducted to determine the carbon footprint of poultry farms. Breeder farms were included in the study. The fuel and electricity bills from farm, house size and age, flock size and number of flocks per year, and manure management were all collected. The methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions were calculated, as well as the effect of these gases on Breeder chicken farms productivity, as well as determining the carbon footprint of broiler chicken farms to reduce the negative effects of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to providing necessary information on breeders chicken performance and advising poultry farmers on the relative merits of different climatic conditions to help set standards for different production traits. The experiments were conducted of closed farms in the city of Mansoura during the period from May to December 2021 and the capacity of the farm was 43300 breeders’ chickens. The results showed that the amount of methane gas produced from the farm was 1.76 ton CH4 yr-1 and nitrous oxide gas was 0.13 ton N2O yr-1 for manure management. Thus, the total emissions of manure management are estimated at 81.65 tons of CO2-eq. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions for diesel is 5.23 tons of CO2-eq. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for the electricity used in the farm is 0.15 tons of CO2-eq. In the end, the total amount of emissions produced from the farm is 87.04 tons of CO2-eq. In the end, the total amount of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions generated from Egypt's farms is 271.8 (kiloton CO2-eq).      

  Tarek FOUDA, Abeer Abdelsalam   
  Agron.Dep., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ.   
The main objective of this research to determine of physical and color properties of seed related to help in safe passage for seed through cleaning and separation processes. Also investigate some seed properties can be used in design and development of multi-seed planting machine. Soya Bean, Wheat, Corn, Cotton Faba Bean and Sunflowers were tested at department of agriculture engineering, faculty of agriculture, Tanta university, Egypt. through 2022. To construction modern device metering for small see drill required essay movement for seeds this is a critically moving during the filling of the feed disk, so must detriments of the small differences in the surface area and topography of the grains and determine some image analyses. The main objective of this research to determine of color properties of seed related to the design of feed mechanism system. The main objective of this research to determine of physical and color properties of seed related to help in safe passage for seed through cleaning and separation processes.      

  Ahmed MORSY and Tarek FOUDA,   
  Tanta University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture Engineering Department, Egypt,   
The main objectives of this study to achieve the closest rate of ideal environmental conditions needed by the hens inside the closed houses such as air temperature, humidity, lighting for hours, air speed, to raise the higher rate of egg production and raise the rate of daily consumption of feed and reduce the mortality percentage and prevent the spread of diseases and low percentage of ammonia and carbon dioxide inside the houses, so measurements were used in the presence of ideal environmental factors and the absence of this ideal factors. Maintaining the optimum temperature from one day’s life, which is 33 ° C to 32 ° C until the end of the first week, this maintains the optimum weight gain required and avoids falling diseases.- Reducing the proportion of ammonia in large ages when the air speed reaches 1.5 m/s at the age 31-50 days. -reduced the percentage of mortality when achieved optimum environmental inside closed laying houses such as temperature, humidity, lighting, air speed and light intensity. The body weight at 25 ages weeks have Less weight difference between ideal weight and actual weight by 155g. The egg weight at 30 ages weeks have nearest weight between ideal weight and actual weight by 0.02g. Broilers egg production percentage increased by (4%) at 28 ages. Mortality percentage decreased by (21.9%) comparing ideal mortality at 30 ages weeks.      

  Summer FOUAD, Mohamed GHONAME, Shimaa SALAH Mohamed EL-KHOLY and, Tarek FOUDA   
  1Tanta University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture Engineering Department, Egypt,   
Abstract The aim of this study, to investigate different time-dependent drying and moisture content under different infrared (IR) and hot-air drying levels and product quality. In this experiment using hybrid drying system to minimize energy consumption during the drying operation and to reduce environmental impact by reducing pro-duct loss in wastes. Three different levels of sweet potato slices thickness (1, 3, 5 mm), were pre-treated by dipping into a solution of 0.5 % sodium meta-bisulphite and 1% citric acid for 30 min. Four different levels of infrared radiation (0.861, 0.973, 1.039 and 1.161 kW.m-²) and three different levels of air-drying temperature (45, 55 and 65°C) were using. The changes in moisture content during the drying process with a constant air velocity of 1.2 m. s-1. The moisture content decreased with drying time .To obtain the desired moisture content from (6.92% to 7.52%), the drying time for 1mm and 0.861 kW.m-² was 165,150 and 105 min while for 5mm and 1.161 kW.m-² was 330, 270 and 240 min at 45, 55 and 65 °C, respectively. The total energy consumption decreased from 14.685 kW. h to 5.72 kW. h as the radiation intensity increased from (0.861 to 1.161 kW.m-²).      

  Gehad H. Abojable, Tarek Zaki Hassan Ali Fouda   
  Agron.Dep., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ.   
After the growth of the Egyptian population of 112 million people in 2022 and the rapid increase in fish production subsequent to industrialization, the production of fisheries and aquaculture has witnessed huge . An increase mainly driven by the development of modern production technologies, Egypt fish yield (1.810 million ton) [9] which reached 2 million tons in 2021 and we are looking forward to an increase of up to 2.8 million tons in 2025. Accordingly, a remarkable increase in the amount of fish waste was estimated. That about two-thirds of the total amount of fish is disposed of as waste, creating huge economies and environmental concerns. For this reason, the disposal and recycling of this waste has become the main issue to be resolved. Most aquaculture activities are generally located in the Northern Nile Delta Region, with fish farms usually found clustered in the areas surrounding the four Delta Lakes (Maruit, Edko, Boruls and Manzala).as showing in Fig 1. Fish hatcheries are also generally located in the vicinity of the fish farms except for five large Government hatcheries scattered along the course of the Nile in Upper Egypt. The distribution of aquaculture units is shown as blue circles      

Effect of climate variability on water footprint: A case study of wheat and maize under different climate regions in Egypt   
  Atef Ghandour   
  Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt   
Agricultural water is suffering from increasing scarcity under the stress of rapid population growth and food demand, global consumption of freshwater resources has grown more than six folds in the past century, future demand on fresh water will continue to increase significantly in the coming decades. Nowadays more than 70% of the available fresh water worldwide is used for agriculture. Therefore, improving agricultural water management became more urgent with high importance more than ever before. This improvement has many different ways and means in term of water use efficiency, irrigation water saving, crop selection including water-efficient and climate-smart crops. The water footprint (WF) based on irrigation water quality is importantly one of the means and ways that provides a discussion making tools for crop selection to maximize agricultural water productivity and sustainably improve water use efficiency. The relation between microclimate and water footprint of selected crops (wheat and maize) in different agro-climate zones in Egypt. There is three agro-ecological zones representing three different microclimate conditions namely; Nile Delta, Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt regions. The climatic data were analyzed to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and calculate crop water uses (CWU) for wheat and maize for average of five-year period from 2015 to 2019. Cultivated areas and yield data during the period of concern were also analyzed. Water footprint (WF) was calculated for old land (clay soils) and new lands (sandy soils) in three climate region based on green, blue and gray waters. The crop water uses fluctuated over regions due to climate variability. The water footprint in Egypt coming from blue water footprint and gray only because the green water footprint value was equal zero nearly because the negligible amount of monthly rainfall.      

  Tarek FOUDA, Mahmoud atta   
  Agron.Dep., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ.   
The main objective of this research is to manufacture a device that treats tractor exhaust gases for diesel engines. And work to reduce harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxides. The previous gases were treated with a group of active oxides such as lithium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxides and calcium oxides with different sizes of natural diameters, milling at mm level and grinding at nm level in the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt. Until 2022. In order to measure the efficiency of absorbing harmful gases and the most appropriate way to determine the lowest percentage of harmful gases resulting from the use of the factory device, this is critical to reducing pollution from the use of tractors inside agricultural greenhouses and reducing environmental pollution in general. The main objective of this research is to manufacture a device and use the best chemicals to reach the highest degree of treatment for the exhaust gas produced from diesel engines.      

  Tarek FOUDA, Amina ALBEBANY   
  Agron.Dep., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ.   
The experimental work was carried out through 2021 at department of agriculture engineering, faculty of agriculture Tanta university, Egypt. to investigate physical, chemical, Mechanical and optical properties of the yellow corn grans imported to Egypt. These properties could be used in design and development of suitable machines and equipment of handling, transporting storage and separating of the grans. The seeds diminutions tested under three different moisture content 12.3, 13.4 and 13.8 %. the average diminutions of yellow corn grain were respectively from 8.12 to 13.85 mm. width from 3.71, to 7.88 mm. thickness ranged from 2.57 to 5.91 mm. Volume 59.69 to 268. 9 mm3, geometric mean diameter from 4.84 to 7. 99 mm, the arithmetic mean diameter from 5.53 to 8.47 mm, and sphericity, changed from 49.7to 87.1%. Also, surface area changed from 73.66 to 200.6 mm2. The chemical analysis of the American yellow corn grains affected of moisture content where the increasing of moisture content from 12.3 % 13.8 % percentage as shown in table IV.7 this lead to decrease the other components of the grains. the protein content was decreased from 7.8 to 7.7 %, fiber was decreased from 2.27 to 2.1 %, Fat was decreased from 3.6to 3.4%, Starch from 63.3 to 36.1, Dead germ from 1.8 to 1.2, Fraction 11.9 to 8, Mycotoxins increased from 0.78 to 0.94. The bulk density decreased from 820 to 743 kg/m3 with the increase in moisture content. on one hand, the porosity increased from 32.3 to 39.2 %. there were height color indices variances between Yellow corn and Ambrosia sp. Were, the RGB values was (156.4, 116 ,41) and (92.9 , 89.9 ,67.4) .      

Oxidative Stress & Antioxidants   
  Prof. Dr. Magdy Ramadan Shahein   
Stress is a complex phenomenon that correlates with oxidative and antioxidative status in organism. The physiological stress responses include several biological mechanisms such as digestion, reproduction, hormone and immunity. In common, physical or psychological stresses cause stress and disrupt homeostasis. Likewise, environmental factors and diseases can be a threat of some impending conditions (malnutrition, weakness, cancer, etc.). Oxidative stress is defined as imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, and with aging, endogenous antioxidant defenses decrease and production of reactive oxygen species increases [Herrera et al, 2009]. Nevertheless, antioxidant defense system and protection mechanisms are important in maintaining the organism against the oxidative stress, and thereby homeostasis can be observed. Keeping a stable homeostasis requires, besides a better environment and gene structure, we should need to know what nutrients are needed to maintain hemostasis. Nutrition especially dietary antioxidants decrease the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species and regulate the stress. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how antioxidants in nutrients exert its health protective effects. Antioxidants, natural or synthetic, may protect cell damages during oxidative stress. New researches showed that natural antioxidants in foods are commonly belonged with a better health and life quality. At that place, there are several natural antioxidants, which can reduce oxidation in cell or lipid peroxidation. Several studies have been stated that natural antioxidants such as medicinal herbs, alga, ginger, curcuma, cloves and vitamins can be utilized for health maintenance. They have important biological activities which attributed to their compounds named carotenoids, polyphenols, phycocyanin and flavonoids. The biological actions of these antioxidants are anti-inflammatory, enzyme detoxification, cell damage prevention, gene regulation and antimicrobial, which have been conducted with human and animal studies . Besides, natural antioxidants are shown to possess the antioxidant activity in organism and maintain the normal physiological condition.      

السياسات والتشريعات واتخاذ الإجراءات للحد من انبعاثات الكربون.   
  أ.د. اشرف ويح استاذ بكليه الحقوق   
  استاذ بكليه الحقوق   
بينما حدد المشرع البيئة وهى المحيط الحيوي الذي يشمل الكائنات الحية و ما يحتويه من مواد و ما يحيط بها من هواء و ماء و تربة وما يقيمه الإنسان من منشآت و الهواء وهوالخليط من الغازات المكونة له بخصائصه الطبيعية و نسبه المعروفة ، و في أحكام هذا القانون هو الهواء الخارجي و هواء أماكن العمل وهواء الأماكن العامة المغلقة و شبه المغلقة وتعريف تلوث الهواء على انه كل تغير في خصائص ومواصفات الهواء الطبيعي يترتب عليه خطر علي صحة الإنسان أو على البيئة سواء كان هذا التلوث ناتجا عن عوامل طبيعية أو نشاط إنساني ، بما في ذلك الضوضاء والروائح الكريهة. واوضحت ورؤية مصر 2030 ، مسار مصر إلى الحياد المناخي بحلول عام 2050 ، من أجل التقييم المنتظم للتقدم المحرز نحو الحياد المناخي ووضع الآليات اللازمه لذلك واعتماد سنة 2022 هي سنة الأساس، يتم فيها قياس البصمة الكربونية لكافة مؤسسات الدولة وشركات القطاع الخاص علي أن تقوم هذه الشركات بتقديم خارطة طريق ملزمة بتخفيض نسب الكربون للوصول الي الصفر بحلول 2050، وتقديم تقرير إلزامي سنوي بالنسب التي تم تخفيضها وينشر مع الميزانية العمومية من خلال استشاري ومراجع بيئي. وجب علينا وعلى المعنين من العلماء والشركات من تقديم معلومات عن انبعاثات غازات الاحتباس الحراري والسياسات والتدابير والتوقعات والتكيف. وستستفيد الدولة أيضًا من هذه المعلومات في عمليات استعراض التنفيذ المناخي ورصد برامج العمل المناخي. و استكمال المعلومات التي تم الحصول عليها من خلال عمليات المراقبة الجوية المنتظمة وكذلك عمليات الاستشعار عن بعد ، بما يفيد ما إذا كان المسار يتطلب تحديث ومراجعة السياسات والتشريعات واتخاذ الإجراءات في حالة عدم كفاية التقدم.      

Isotopic Fingerprint for Climatic Changes Applications البصمه النظائربه فى تطبيقات التغيرات المناخيه   
  Prof. Mostafa Abdel-Hameed Sadek   
  Research Centre for Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Atomic Energy Authority   
Carbon element is essential in natural cycles which determine climate , it dominates the Green House Gases (CO2, CH4) of concern for present days climatic changes. Carbon isotopes ( Carbon 12, Carbon 13 and Carbon 14) and other environmental isotopes have specific contents in different compounds of natural cycles , fingerprinting them and encoding the original conditions under which they are formed. Predictable and measurable changes take place on the isotopic fingerprints of these compounds under natural or anthropogenic processes (decay, combustion, photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, mixing, dilution, ….etc.), these processes are reflected in the final isotopic content of the compounds. The concentrations of carbon 14 and carbon 13 isotopes in atmosphere can help to differentiate, specify , quantify and track the CO2 produced by fossil oil or natural gas combustion and that produced by different biogenic origins. These information support the monitored CO2 concentration for measuring the efficiency and guiding /correcting the efforts conducted for climate changes mitigation. The carbon 14 is also introduced to measure and certify the percentage of biodegradable components of bio-based products nationally or internationally produced to protect environment and climate. In the context of the dryness and water shortage expected under climatic changes, water molecule isotopes (oxygen18 and deuterium) can provide information highly important for sustainable development and efficient use of water resources. These information include: sources of groundwater recharge & its renewability , age and continuity & the fossil water contribution and distribution & the loss by evaporation , transpiration and efficiency of irrigation water use & the efficiency of rainwater harvesting & sources of hydrothermal water , its reservoir temperature and heat efficiency & seepage , sea water intrusion and sources of pollution….etc. Oxygen and deuterium isotopes of precipitation can also provide information on rainout conditions (amount, temperature, altitude,…etc.)      

  Prof Dr. Tarek Fouda   
  Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt   
Greenhouse gases was defined as gases that trap heat within the atmosphere. This group includes carbon dioxide , methane ,ozone , nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons . The United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s concludes that high concentrations of these gases are the predominant cause of recently observed global warming, glacial melt, and sea level rise. To reduce CO2 Investing in technologies that can increase the efficiency of coal plants from 35% to 50%. The supply of other fuels for cement production is expected to increase from 18% in 2010 to 40% by 2050, with 40% consisting of pure biomass. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is responsible for about 20%–50% of the CO2 produced in a petrochemical plant. About 1.83 tons of CO2 were emitted for each ton of steel produced between 2017 and 2018. The iron and steel industry generates about 7%–9% direct CO2 emission from the burning of fossil fuels The estimated potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry is around 27 Mt/year, and this can be achieved through: Energy optimization by upgrading to newer technologies that use energy more efficiently. Fuel change using an alternative cleaner and less expensive fuel instead of coal. Recycling of scrap metal instead of forging new steel.      

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