الطاقة الخضراء والمدن الذكية        Green Energy and Smart Cities      
The effect of sustainable urbanization on tourism development in coastal cities   
  Walaa A. Nour1, Marwa A. Kamar Eldawlah1, Mayar A. Khourshid2   
  21كلية الهندسة - جامعة طنطا ، 2ا1المعهد العالي للهندسة و التكنولوجيا - المنوفية   
walaanour@f-eng.tanta.edu.eg   
 
طرق التصميم العمراني والمعماري المتبعة حاليا في اغلب الدول تتجاهل العلاقة بين المبني و ما يحيط به والقاطنين فيه لذلك تستهلك مواد أكثر وتؤثر سلبا علي البيئة. وتقوم فكرة التنمية السياحية المستدامة علي استحداث تحولات هيكلية في تصميم المدن السياحية الساحلية عن طريق الاستخدام الأمثل للموارد الطبيعية، والاقتصادية، والاجتماعية، والعمرانية بما يتفق مع طلب واحتياجات الحركة السياحية الحالية والكاملة. وقد استطاعت العديد من الدول تنمية مواردها السياحية خلال الاعتماد علي التصميمات المستدامة للمناطق ذات القيمة التراثية حيث توجد علاقة وثيقة بين التصميم العمراني لها وبين قطاع السياحة لمد عناصر جذب مميزة لاكسابها صفة الاستدامة والاستمرارية. للسائح الزائر. يعتبر التراث بمختلف أشكاله ذاكرة الشعوب و مبعث فخر بهويتها و تاريخها، إلا أن التراث في العصر الحاضر قد تجاوز هذه المكانة الشكلية و الرمزية، ليتبوء موقعا مميزا كعامل مهم من عوامل التنمية البشرية بمختلف أبعادها، و هكذا أصبح موضوع المحافظة على التراث المادي و غير المادي و رد الاعتبار له من القضايا الملحة التي تسترعي اهتمام الحكومات و الشعوب و المنتظم الدولي و المهتمين و جمعيات المجتمع المدني... و قد تصاعد هذا الاهتمام ليعزز الجهود المبذولة من أجل الحفاظ على الخصوصيات الثقافية و الحضارية للشعوب في ظل تواصل زحف تيار العولمة الجارف، الذي يسعى الى تنميط الثقافة الإنسانية و الإجهاز على العادات و التقاليد المحلية لحساب نمط موحد في التفكير و في العمل وفي التفاعل مع الظواهر الكونية. وانطلاقا من هذا برز شعور بالحاجة الى دراسة العلاقة بين العمران السياحي المستدام والمناطق ذات القيمة التراثية والوصول الى استراتيجية للتعامل معه والحفاظ عليه و إبراز الجوانب الفنية و التاريخية به .      

 
ادارة المخلفات        Waste Management ( 3 R s )      
Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polypropylene   
  Abdelfattah M. Khourshid   
  Prof., Mechanical Engineering, Dean of Higher Future Institute of Engineering and Technology, El Mansoura Egypt;   
drkhourshid@yahoo.com   
 
The widespread use of plastics in the fields of conditioning, packaging, and construction materials generates a huge amount of industrial waste that could be recycled for wastewater pipes and fittings. Nonetheless, current manufacturing standards in the piping industry warn against the use of recycled post-consumer products — a policy based on insufficient knowledge of the properties and long-term mechanical efficiency of recycled materials. The present work suggested evaluating the tensile and effect properties of secondary recycled polypropylene. The polymer selected for the studies was polypropylene (PP) due to its high application and availableness. Tensile strength and impact tests on virgin polypropylene, recycled polypropylene, and mixtures with different proportions of both were conducted. Thus, values of yield strength, elastic modulus, yield elongation and impact force were obtained for each sample. The outcome of the obtained regarding the impact properties, the energy absorbed by the recycled polymers ‎has been observed to be lower than that of the virgin polypropylene. Recycled ‎pp can therefore replace virgin pp in applications that are ‎subjected to tension stress but not in those that impact it.‎      

 
البيئة والمخاطر الصحية        Environment and Health Risks      
Food Intoxication in Ready-to-eat Meat Meals and their Risk Hazards   
  Soad A. Ismail1 and Mariam A. Abdel-Wahab2   
  1Dept. of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 2Dept. of Food Safety and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Minia University soadismail@yahoo.com   
soadismail@yahoo.com   
 
Contamination of ready-to-eat food rendering them unacceptable for human consumption has become a global health problem. This study wascarried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat meat meals in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Sixty samples of ready-to-eat meat meals including 20 samples from each of liver, hawawshy and shesh-tawook were randomly collected from restaurants with different hygienic levels in Ismailia Governorate for microbiological indices.Themean values of Staphylococcus aureus counts in the examined samples were 3.03, 2.8 and 2.9 (log10 CFU/g) respectively while themean values ofBacillus cereuscounts were 3.33, 1.97 and 2.6 (log10 CFU/g) respectively.Moreover, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureusand Bacillus cereuswas (50 & 70%),(70 & 65%) and (60 & 50%) in liver, hawawshy and shesh-tawook respectively. In the light of the obtained results, it was recommended that the corresponding authorities should adoptregular inspection, reassessment of the manufacturing of meat products and training of food handlers to improve their hygiene and decrease levels of contamination.      

 
الإثر البيئي علي صحة الفم        Environmental Impact on Oral Health      
Effect of Different Root Canal Irrigation solutions on Bond Strength of Bioceramic-based Sealer   
  Abd-Elmoneim A. Elkalashy, Hatem A. Alhadainy, Walaa M. Ghoneim   
  Endodontics Department. Faculty of Dentistry, Tanya University   
Abdelmoneim_elkalashy@yahoo.com   
 
Purpose: is to evaluate the possible effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on push-out bond strength of Endosequence BC sealer to radicular dentin. Materials and methods: Forty extracted human single rooted premolars with one straight root canal were used, crowns of all teeth were removed to a root length of 15±1 mm, then roots were randomly divided into four equal groups (n=10) according to root canal irrigating solution, Group I; NAC solution, Group II; NaOCl solution, Group III; CHX solution and Group IV; saline solution as a control group. After working length determination, all canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files up to #F3 using 5 ml of assigned irrigating solution after the use of each file. All root canals were obturated with gutta-percha cones in combination with Endosequence BC sealer. Three 2 mm thickness sections were obtained from each root representing coronal, middle and apical thirds and subjected to push-out test. Statistical analysis was performed using One Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P-value ≤ 0.05. Results: CHX recorded the highest mean value of push out bond strength at coronal and apical levels followed by NAC, NaOCl and saline solution. Coronal level displayed the highest mean bond strength value whereas the lowest one was recorded apically. Conclusion: Irrigation with CHX and NAC solutions increased significantly bonding of Endosequence BC sealer to root canal dentin. Keywords: Chlorhexidine gluconate, Endosequence BC sealer, N-Acetylcystine, Push-out bond strength, Root canal irrigation.      

 
الإثر البيئي علي صحة الفم        Environmental Impact on Oral Health      
Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of 3D Titanium Miniplate in Fixation of Anterior Mandibular Fractures   
  Ahmed Abd El LatifMosleh*; Mohamed M .Shoushan**; Mohamed M. SaadKhedr* and Ahmed S. Naguib*   
  * Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Dept., ** Head of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Dept.,   
ahmed_mosleh@dent.tanta.edu.eg   
 
purpose: the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of curved 2.0 mm 3-Dimensional strut titanium plate for fixation of anterior mandibular fractures (symphyseal or parasymphyseal). patients and methods: a prospective randomized clinical study was carried out in 12 adult patients with fractured symphyseal or parasymphyseal region of the mandible with well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. All patients were followedup for 6 months both clinically (for detection of neurosensory deficits of the lower lip, wound dehiscence, infection, segmental mobil¬ity, postoperative occlusion and degree of patient’s satisfactions with the performed treatment) and radiographically (for radiological evaluation of reduction and fixation). Results: twelve adult patients (9males and 3 females) were included in this work with one case (case no. 4) suffered from minor Occlusal discrepancy corrected by guiding elastics for ten days. Stability of fractured segments was achieved in all cases and examined clinically at all follow up periods (immediate postoperative, three months and six months) bimanually. One case suffered from wound dehiscence (case no.2) treated by daily irrigation with warm normal saline 0.9%, antiseptic mouth rinses. Immediate postoperative radiograph (panoramic x-ray-Axial and 3 dimen¬sional CT films) revealed no changes in position of reduced segments in horizontal and vertical direction of all cases. Radiographic examination revealed that the fracture line is difficult to be detected three months postoperatively and disappeared after six months.By the end of follow up period none of patients showed any signs of nonunion. conclusions: The 3-dimensional curved strut miniplate is considered as a better and easy sys¬tem to be applied for fixation of anterior mandibular fractures. But, there are some limitations to use in cases of oblique fractures and those fractures that involve the mental foramen, as well as there is excessive implant material because of the extra vertical bars      

 
الإثر البيئي علي صحة الفم        Environmental Impact on Oral Health      
Efficiency of Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging in Treatment of Patients with Bisphosphonate Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw   
  Eslam Elhaliem Gharieb , Abdelfattah A. Sadakah , Mohammad A. Elshall , Elsayed M. Deraz   
  Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University   
eslam_gharieb@dent.tanta.edu.eg   
 
Purpose: to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative fluorescence imaging indifferentiating vital from necrotic bone via incorporating doxycycline into mineralizingbone by the aid of (Oral ID™) device in patients with bisphosphonate relatedosteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) disease. At Oral and Maxillofacial surgery department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University. Prospective non controlled clinical study was carried outon twelve patients above 30 years old who had (BRONJ) disease. Intraoperative, after surgical exposure, visual fluorescence retention (VFR) and visualfluorescence loss (VFL) were documented on digital photographs. VFL appears dark(necrotic bone) showing a distinct contrast to surrounding normal pale greenfluorescence (vital tissue) , The necrotic bone was curetted under normal light using bone resected (Biopsy I), with usage of the device, more surgical resection of the affected VFL darkbone were done till VFL ceases the resected bone biopsy (Biopsy II), peripheral ostectomy of 2 mm of the compact bone (VFR) [taken as safety margin] (BiopsyIII).Post-operative, clinical evaluation of pain and wound healing. Histopathologicalevaluation was performed to detect necrotic and vital bone in all biopsies as well aspresence or absence of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Radiographic evaluation by CBCT. Results: The results show that all patients had complete relief of pain, complete healing of the soft tissuewas observed in ten patients, and two patients had partial soft tissue healing. Concerning histopathological evaluation, confirmed that image fluorescence is an effectiveIn complete eradication of necrotic bone from BRONJ lesions. In conclusion, the clinical and histopathological data suggested that the intraoperativefluorescence imaging is accurate in surgical management of BRONJ disease.      

 
الإثر البيئي علي صحة الفم        Environmental Impact on Oral Health      
In Vivo Effect of Bioactive Glass with Fluoride on Enamel Surface Prior to Orthodontic Brackets Bonding   
  Hazem Magdy   
  Faculty of Dentistry, Tanya University   
mohamed.elshaikh@dent.tanta.edu.eg   
 
To investigate the in vivo effects of NUPRO® extra care prophy paste on preventing enamel demineralization surrounding orthodontic brackets before bonding using Atomic Force Microscopy. This study was carried out on twenty patients scheduled to have maxillary premolars extracted as a part of orthodontic treatment. Participants in this study were divided into 2 equal groups according to the type of prophylaxis paste used before bonding utilizing split mouth technique. Group I (experimental side) n = 20 premolar in which NUPRO extra care phrophypaste was used in right side and Group II(controlside) n = 20 premolar in which conventional fluoride-free polishing paste was used in left side . The participants werefurther divided into anothertwo groups 10 per each according to the duration of the experiment into Group A and Group B for either 30 days or 60 days. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to upper premolars in all casesafter prophylaxis and T-loops stainless steel wires are engaged on brackets to increase plaque accumulation. After the brackets were debonded teeth were extracted and prepared for atomic force microscopic scanning. The mean average roughnessand total surface area were calculated for each sample. Comparison between groups was performed using one way ANOVA test with P ≤ 0.05. Group IA and Group IB yielded the least mean average roughness and total surface area than control groups (Group IIA and Group IIB). In conclusion, Single Application of NUPRO extra care phrophypaste prior to orthodontic bracket bonding provides reduction in enamel demineralization around orthodontic attachmentsforonly one month.      

 
الإثر البيئي علي صحة الفم        Environmental Impact on Oral Health      
REMINERALIZATION EFFICIENCY OF CHICKEN EGG SHELL POWDER (CESP) ON ARTIFICIALLY INDUCED DENTAL EROSION IN PRIMARY TEETH: AN IN-VITRO STUDY   
  Eman Mohamed Sobhy El-Bahrawya,* ,Ahmed Ibrahime El- Dosokyb   
  aDental Biomaterials Dept., bOral Health & Preventive Dentistry, Faculty Of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt   
dreman1978@yahoo.com   
 
Several cases of tooth erosion are attributed to oral administration of liquid oral medications. Chicken egg shell powder (CESP) has gained much concern in modern dentistry for having anti-erosive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CESP on the surface roughness and microhardness of primary teeth enamel eroded by antihistaminicsyrup. Twenty exfoliated/ extracted primary teeth were collected for the study. Then, each tooth was sectioned buccolingually into two halves, as study group and as control. Specimens of both groups were immersed in antihistaminic syrup for 30min twice daily for 12 days to produce erosive enamel lesions. Study group specimens were treated with the CESP solutiononce daily 3min for 10 consecutive days while control group specimens remained untreated. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva between the erosive and remineralizing cycles, then were evaluated for surface roughness using surface profile gauge and surface microhardness using Vickers microhardness tester. The mean value of surface roughness was significantly increased after erosion with antihistaminic syrup. The mean surface roughness of remineralized samples was significantly lower than that of the untreated samples. The mean value of surface microhardness was significantly decreased after erosion with antihistamine syrup. The mean surface microhardness of remineralized samples was significantly higher than that of the untreated samples. Treatment of eroded primary tooth enamel with CESP solution decreased surface roughness and improved surface microhardness in-vitro. Roughness and hardness testing are accurate and reliable methods to evaluate the enamel surface for demineralization and remineralization studies in vitro.      

 
التلوث البيئي        Environmental Pollutions      
Performance and Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Running with Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends   
  Saeed M. Belal1,*, Yehia A. Eldrainy2, A. H. Elbatran3 and Adel A. Abdel-Rahman2   
  1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt 2Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt 3Department of Marine Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt   
tuef.EnvPl@unv.tanta.edu.eg   
 
Nowadays interest increased in renewable alternative such as biodiesel, bioethanol, blended fuels. These alternatives should be examined in real engines to evaluate its effect on engine performance and emissions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to experimentally test a diesel engine performance and emissions using a mixture of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel fuel in different blending ratio B5, B10, B15 and B20. This experimental test was applied on a single cylinder, 4-stroke, air cooled, and direct injection diesel engine test rig model GUNT-CT100.22. The test was performed at constant speed of 2000 rpm and variable loads of 3, 6, 9 and 12 N.m. The results showed that B5 reached the highest peak pressure because waste cooking biodiesel involved considerable increase in inherent oxygen atoms content in contrast to pure diesel fuel under full load operation. Bsfc of biodiesel blends increased with increasing the waste cooking oil percentage. This increase was attributed to bad atomization, volatility, vaporization and mixing fuel-air process of waste cooking oil biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were increased with increase of waste cooking amount and this was owing to considerable increase in inherent oxygen atoms content, combustion temperature. In addition, CO emission that emitted from biodiesel blends were decreased as a result of rich oxygen content of biodiesel .      

 
استدامة الموارد الطبيعية        Natural Resources Sustainability      
Overexpression of the NAC Transcription Factor SNAC3 Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance and Improves Grain Yield in Rice (Oryza sativa L.): Towards Developing New Promising Cultivars   
  Mohamed A. El-Esawi 1,2* and Margaret Ahmad 2   
  1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt 2 UMR CNRS 8256 (B2A), IBPS, University of Paris VI, Paris, France   
mohamed.elesawi@science.tanta.edu.eg   
 
Environmental stresses as high salinity and drought adversely limit crops growth and productivity worldwide. Though various NAC proteins are reported to play a role in regulating environmental stress tolerance in plants, underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated whether rice stress-responsive NAC gene, SNAC3, could enhance salt stress tolerance and grain yield in rice (Oryza sativaL.). Results revealed that SNAC3 overexpression in transgenic rice significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress and improved grain yield, accompanied with significantly lower levels of oxidative stress markers (H2O2, malondiadehyde, relative electrolyte leakage) and higher levels of relative water content, chlorophyll, gas-exchange attributes, osmolytes (soluble sugars, soluble proteins, and proline), antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT, SOD, APX, POD), and stress-related genes expression (OsCATA, OsCATB, OsAPX2, OsSOD-Cu/Zn, OsLEA3, OsRD29A, OsDREB2A, OsDREB2B, OsRAB16A) as compared to wild-type under salt stress conditions. Contrarily, SNAC3 mutants created using CRISPR/CAS9 technology exhibited increased sensitivity to salt stress and reduced grain yield, accompanied with higher levels of oxidative stress markers and lower levels of relative water content, chlorophyll, gas-exchange attributes, osmolytes, antioxidant enzymes activity and stress-related genes expression as compared to the wild-type under salt stress conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that SNAC3 plays key role in enhancing salt stress tolerance and grain yield in rice through modulating antioxidants, osmolytes biosynthesis and stress-related genes expression, could be a useful candidate for engineering rice and other crops with enhanced tolerance to salt stress. The current study provided newly developed transgenic rice genotypes with enhanced tolerance to salt stress and improved grain yield      

 
   
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