Nanotechnologies and their applications             No Of Abstract is : 21  
Coordinator : Prof Elsayed Ibrahim Salim
Faculty : Faculty of Science
Email :
Mobile : 01220177760
  One of the main topics of the “4th Tanta University International Environmental Forum” is “Nanotechnologies and Their Applications”. It is a pleasing opportunity that provides a leading interdisciplinary platform of scientists, researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the latest innovations trends, concerns, as well as the practical challenges faced by these technologies and solutions adopted and applied in this field. This topic aims to building bridges between leading academic scientists, researchers and industry to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Sciences. These new approaches, innovations and presentations will help to establish a basic knowledge to all the representatives.  
Tissue distribution and excretion of silver nanoparticles in pregnant rats and fetuses after a single oral dose   
  Elsayed I. Salim1, *, Khaled Y. Abdel-Halim2, Sally E. Abu-Risha3, Ahmed S. Abdel-Latif1   
  1Tanta University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Research Lab. of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Tanta, 31527- Egypt. 2Mammalian & Aquatic Toxicology department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), ARC, 12618, Dokki, Egypt 3Tanta University, Faculty of pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Tanta, 31527- Egypt.   
A quantitative assessment of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in fluids and some organs of pregnant rats as well as their fetal blood was carried out in this study. A single oral dose of AgNPs with a size range (4-20 nm) was administered to pregnant rats on 19th day of gestation. Five groups were euthanized after 10 min, 1, 6, 12 and 24 hr as well as control group. Nanoparticles (AgNPs) in desirable samples were quantified by Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In maternal blood, AgNPs were found time dependently increased after 12 and 24 hr into 0.135 and 0.224 µg/ml, but it was slightly high in fetal blood after 10 min and 1 hr (0.320 and 0.310 µg/ml) respectively as compared with other time points. In other samples, the data indicated that AgNPs are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (dosing rote) as evidenced by the detection of silver (Ag+) concentrations in gastrointestinal wall. On the other hand, the percentages of urine excretion levels per applied dose at all the time points were higher in urine (18.25%) than those of the feces (4.77%) after 24 hr. In conclusion, the ability of AgNPs to accumulate in pregnant rats and transfer to their fetuses may impose adverse outcomes and malformation in human exposed to AgNPs.      

Cancer promoting potential of silver nanoparticles on a rat multiorgan carcinogenesis bioassay through 8-OhdG formation and accumulation in different organs.   
  Elsayed I. Salim1, *, Khaled Y. Abdel-Halim2, Mostafa E. El-Mahalawy1   
  1Tanta University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Research Lab. of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Tanta, 31527- Egypt. 2Mammalian & Aquatic Toxicology department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), ARC, 12618, Dokki, Egypt   
In a multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay, rats were administered with three different chemical carcinogens to induce urinary bladder (BBN), liver (DEN) and colon (DMH) carcinogenesis. Rats were subsequently i.v. administered with 2 or 4 mmole of 4-20nm AgNPs, 2 times weekly; 8 weeks following carcinogen administration. The groups administered both doses of AgNPs showed significant increased incidences and multiplicities of urinary bladder preneoplastic lesions as well as malignant tumors. AgNPs have also significantly increased numbers of all liver preneoplastic, benign or malignant lesions. Moreover, treatment with both doses of AgNPs significantly increased the immunohistochemical proliferating index of PCNA labelling (LI%) in the urinary bladder and liver tissues and lesions. Furthermore, the numbers of colonic preneoplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were significantly increased by AgNPs administration particularly at the 4 mmole dose. On the other hand, blood levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the DNA oxidative damage genotoxicity marker, exhibited dose dependent high levels in both AgNPs groups respectively. The total AgNPs excretion levels were in the following order: 6, 1, 168, 24, 12 hr and 10 min representing 1.590, 0.855, 0.745, 0.688, 0.643 and 0.373%, respectively. Also, the present findings show that the accumulation of NPs in some organs e.g. liver, kidney and spleen was higher than excreted amounts. Thus, the AgNPs have high ability to bind with tissues of these organs resulting in adverse cytotoxic or genotoxic effects resulting in its ability to enhance carcinogenic potential effects of cancer chemical precursors. Therefore, it is recommended to investigate the nanomaterial toxicity in relation to particle size when intended to be used at direct exposure to humans.      

Effect of ionene structure on the adsorption of anionic dye onto Na+- montmorillonite/polyaspartate-ionene composites   
  Mohamed H. El-Newehy, Hany El-Hamshary, and Abeer S. Elsherbiny   
  Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt   
Efficient nanocomposites adsorbent composed of sodium montmorillonite (Na+-Mt) ionene-aspartate were prepared for water decontamination from acid blue25 (AB25) as a model of anionic dyes. Different ionene and polyionenes compounds were used as a linker between the polyaspartate and Mt. Na+-Mt was initially modified with three different ionene compounds through ion exchange, and subsequently modified by reaction with polyaspartate to provide three nanocomposites (denoted ICP-1–3). The nanocomposites were characterized using several spectroscopic techniques. Adsorption experiments performed in aqueous solutions showed that the nanocomposites have high adsorption capacities for AB25, where ICP-1 showed the highest one (qe = 6.17 molg-1 at 25 °C). The adsorption isotherm was investigated and analyzed using different models. The adsorption isotherm of AB25 onto ICP-1, ICP-2 and ICP-3 was well interpreted by the Freundlich isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The kinetics of the adsorption data were analyzed to understand the adsorption behavior. The adsorption mechanism was studied by FT-IR      

Dexamethasone simulates the effect of nano formulated paclitaxel in breast cancer   
  Thoria Diab1, Samar Alkafas 1, Thanaa Ibrahim Shalaby2, Mohamed Hessien1   
  Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt 2- Department of Chemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt.   
Nano formulation of drugs is adopted to improve the efficacy of many chemotherapeutic compounds, enhance their delivery, minimize the effective dose and bypass solvent-associated side effects. Because the chemosensitizing effect of dexamethasone (DEX) is well reported, this study was designed to explore how far cotreatment of breast cancer cells with Paclitaxel (PTX) and DEX mimics the effect of nano formulated paclitaxel (PTX). To investigate this, PTX was nano-formulated with poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and the obtained nanoparticles (PTX-NPs) were characterized. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were exposed to free PTX or PTX-NPs in presence or absence of DEX, where cell viability (assessed by MMT assay), the apoptotic effect (assessed by flow cytometry) and the expression of PTX resistance gene (TRG1) and the drug metabolizing genes (CYP2C8 and CYP3A4) were investigated. The obtained results have demonstrated a satisfactory nano-formulation of PTX as validated by the nanoparticle size (less than 200 nm), size enlargement relative to the blank (PLGA-NPs), moderate increase in the anionic surface charge (-10 mEv) and the drug conjugation as indicated by the FT-IR spectroscopy. Initially, the IC50 of PTX was 19.3 ug/ml and cotreatment of cells with PTX and DEX has minimized the IC50 to 5.22 ug/ml, whereas PTX-NPs alone inhibited the cell proliferation with IC50 6.67 ug/ml. In presence of DEX, PTX-NPs mildly decreased the IC50 to 5 ug/ml. In parallel, DEX increased the responsiveness of cells to the drug without potentiating their apoptotic effect. Meanwhile, DEX (with PTX and PTX-NPs) downregulated the TRG1 gene by 26% and 28.4%, respectively and the expression of CYP2C8 gene was upregulated. In contrast, CYP3A4 was downregulated in presence of DEX. The study reveals that DEX co-treatment acts as similar as nano formulated, PTX possibly through its modulatory effects on the expression of drug metabolizing genes and downregulating PTX resistance gene.      

Hyperthermia in combination with supraparamagnetic graphene oxide delivery system for doxorubicin induced distinguished tumor cell cycle arrest and apoptosis   
  Mohamed L. Salem 1,2*, Ali Gemeay3 , Soha Gomaa1, Maha A. Aldubayan4, Lobna Assy 1,2   
  1Immunology and Biotechnology Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt 2Center of Excellence in Cancer Research, Tanta University, Teaching Hospital, Tanta University, Egypt 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt 4Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, College of Phamracy, Qassim University, KSA   
It has been reported that graphene oxide (GO) can effectively deliver the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) without altering its anti-tumor activities. Superaparamagnetic GO nanoparticles such as GO/Fe3O4, hybrid nanocomposite of GO and Fe3O4, is effective in mediating intracellular hyperthermia. This first aim of this study is to load DOX onto GO/Fe3O4 with or without folic acid (FA). In the presence of infrared (IR) light source. The second aim is to compare its anti-tumor effects with those of free DOX. GO/Fe3O4 was synthesized and then loaded with DOX alone (GO/ Fe3O4 /DOX) or with DOX and FA (rGO/Fe3O4 /FA/DOX). The conjugates were characterized using TEM, FT-IR and TGA analysis. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) breast cancer cell line was used to assess the anti-tumor effects of these conjugates in vivo. The results confirmed the nano size of conjugates, which showed high loading capacity surface area for DOX reaching up to 90%. Although the conjugates showed strong anti-tumor effects similar to those of DOX, they expressed different impacts on cell cycle and apoptosis of EAC cells. Additionally, when the conjugates were stimulated with IR, the level of keratinase as a cardiac biomarker was close to normal level. In conclusion, GO/ Fe3O4, in combination with brief hyperthermia induces anti-tumor effect with less cardiotoxicity. Further studies are needed to optimize the beneficial effects of this kind of hyperthermia and to understand the underlying mechanisms.      

Impact of graphene oxide Nano sheets loaded with chemotherapy drug on tumor cells   
  Mohamed L. Salem 1,2*, Ali Gemeay3 , Soha Gomaa1, Maha A. Aldubayan4, Lobna Assy 1,2   
  1Immunology and Biotechnology Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt 2Center of Excellence in Cancer Research, Tanta University, Teaching Hospital, Tanta University, Egypt 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt 4Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, College of Phamracy, Qassim University,   
Abstract Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anti-cancer drug. Despite its efficiency, it induces significant side effects. Aim: This study was aimed to load DOX on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with or without folic acid (FA) and to compare the anti-tumor effects of these conjugates to those of free DOX as well as the association toxicity. Methods: GO was synthesized by Hummers method, then loaded with DOX alone (GO/DOX) or with DOX and FA (GO/FA/DOX). Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line was used to assess the anti-tumor effects of these conjugates both in vitro and in vivo. Results: The used characterized techniques confirmed the nano size form and characteristic features of the prepared conjugates. Loading DOX on GO resulted in 91% of the initial concentration of DOX. While, loading of both DOX and FA on GO resulted in 83% and 54%, respectively, of their initial concentration. DOX was adjusted in the conjugates at 50 μg/mL in the in vitro studies and at 15 mg/kg in the in vivo studies. In vitro, the treatment of EAC with GO/DOX or GO/FA/DOX conjugates induced significant decreases of the cell viability but with lesser effects as compared to free DOX. In vivo treatment of EAC ascites-bearing mice with free DOX, GO/DOX and GO/FADOX conjugates induced significant decreased of the total numbers of EAC cells by 97.8 %, 79% and 97 %, respectively associated with regarding cell cycle arrest at G0, G1 and S phase, respectively. These treatments also induced significant apoptosis. Conclusion: Loading DOX on GO nanosheet with FA can induce antitumor effect similar to those of free DOX.      

Performance Enhancement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane Using Nanocomposite Materials   
  A.E.Kabeel1, A. Khalil1, Y.A. F. EL-Samadony2, and Maisa A. Sharaf3,*   
  1Mechanical Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt 2Mechanical Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon 3Mechanical Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelsheikh University, KafrElsheikh, Egypt   
Many attempts were made to enhance the performance of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in the desalination process. Using ion exchange (IX) bed before RO process and modifying the structure of RO membranes are some of these attempts. Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane is the novel type of RO membranes which is the best in nanofiltration applications. TFN membranes have many new advantages due to the change of their structure in comparison with traditional membranes. In this study the performance of a TFN membrane was compared with that of standard thin film composite (TFC) spiral wound water desalination RO membrane for filtration of IX produced water. The results from the filtration process showed that the flux and water permeability of TFN are 1.55 and 1.56 times that of TFC for feed water with 2050 ppm NaCl concentration with nearly unchanged level of the membrane salt rejection, which will reduce the filtrated water cost      

Environmental analysis for Flat-plate solar collector using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/water nanofluid.   
  Mahmoud Eltaweel, Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim   
  1 Mechanical engineering department, The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt 2 Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt   
The increase of the heat transfer area in solar thermal collectors affects the temperature output of the system. Conversely, the increase of the heat transfer area will lead to a heavier and bigger collector, which will lead to a cost increase in terms of material used and manufacturing. The effect of Multi-Walled Carbon nanotubes nanoparticles on the performance of a flat-plate solar collector was investigated. Different weight fractions of MWCNT were examined to study the effect of nanoparticles of the collector’s efficiency, the concentrations used were 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.05%. the experiments were performed at six different flow rates of 1 L/min, 1.5 L/min, 2 L/min, 2.5 L/min 3 L/min and 3.5 L/min. the use of MWCNT/water nanofluid increased the thermal efficiency of the collector, with a concentration of 0.05 wt% the collector size can be reduced by 24%. The environmental analysis is carried out to find the role of MWCNT nanoparticles in the reduction of carbon dioxide. The use of MWCNT/water nanofluid as the working fluid inside flat-plate solar collector reduces the energy payback time and carbon payback time with the increase of the concentration.      

Evacuated tube solar collector performance using multi-walled carbon nanotubes and water nanofluid: Energy and environmental analysis   
  Aya Hesham1*, Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim1,2, Mahmoud Eltaweel1,3   
  1 Mechanical engineering department, The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt 2 Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt   
Solar heating systems are continuously becoming more popular due to several reasons. Since, these systems use renewable solar energy, they are efficient, versatile and pollution-free. This study is carried out to estimate the potential to increase the efficiency and improve the design of solar heating systems using innovative solutions. The effect of using multi-walled carbon nanotubes and water nanofluid on the performance of evacuated tube solar collector was studied. The tests were performed at different flow rates ranging from 1 to 3.5L/min using different concentrations of 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.05%. The results demonstrate an increase in the efficiency with increasing the volume flow rate and the concentration. The highest efficiency was achieved using a concentration of 0.05%. This weight fraction can reduce the size of the collector by 16.1%. Finally, the impact of using MWCNT/water nanofluid on the environment was investigated to determine its role in decreasing carbon dioxide. The use of MWCNT/water nanofluid in evacuated tube solar collector has a low energy payback time and carbon payback time compared to traditional methods. Thus, the environmental damage can be reduced using this nanofluid based solar collector.      

Eco-friendly and optimal synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green algae: catalytic and antibacterial activities   
  Eman F. Aboelfetoh, Rania A. El-Shenody, Mohamed M. Ghobara   
  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt   
Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Caulerpa serrulata (green marine algae) aqueous extract as an effective reducing and stabilizing agent. This strategy is viewed as an economical option in contrast to the more complicated chemical strategies. To accomplish the optimization synthesis of AgNPs, various effects (such as extract concentration, contact time, pH values, and temperature) were studied. The synthesized AgNPs were described by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and HR-TEM. TEM images reveal that higher extract concentration and higher temperature prompting the formation of spherical AgNPs with an average particle size of 10 ± 2 nm. The synthesized AgNPs showed excellent catalytic reduction activity of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. The degradation efficiency of CR with AgNPs accelerated by increasing either NaBH4 concentration or catalytic dosage. The AgNPs synthesized at higher temperature exhibited the highest catalytic activity. The reaction kinetics was found to be pseudo-first order with respect to the dye concentration. Additionally, the AgNPs displayed an antibacterial activity at lower concentrations against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and maybe a good alternative therapeutic approach. The results of the current study affirmed that the synthesized AgNPs had a wonderful assurance for application in catalysis and wastewater treatment.      

Raw surface water treatment via a novel dual coagulation system   
  Eman F. Aboelfetoh*, Abdelmeguid. E. Aboubaraka, and El-Zeiny M. Ebeid   
  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt   
Chitosan (CS) was applied as a natural coagulant aid for the first time to enhance the coagulation efficiency of graphene oxide (GO). The coagulation proficiency of the new system (GO/CS) was assessed under various states of water turbidity, coagulant dose, solution pH, temperature, and settling speed. The results plainly show that utilizing CS as a characteristic coagulant aid exceedingly enhances the coagulation ability of GO in a wider pH range. Under the optimum condition, the system indicated amazing turbidity removal efficiency (98.45%) for all artificially turbid surface water (20, 100 and 200 NTU). The mix of GO and CS has shown high removal efficiency for turbidity, algae, bacteria. Interestingly, after the filtration process, there was no residual of GO. The GO/CS system was applied for the removal of some industrial pollutants from surface water. It showed high coagulation ability to remove direct brown (DB), methylene blue (MB) and lead ions from the contaminated surface water. Moreover, the reused sludge obtained from the primary coagulation process indicated high adsorption capacity for DB, MB and Pb2+ ions. In this way, the combination between GO and CS is thus of extraordinary financial incentive in the treatment of surface water and industrial wastewater.      

Effect of Different Nano-fertilizers on Alfalfa Plants Grown Under Different Salt Stresses in Hydroponic System   
  M. S. EL-Sharkawy1, T. R. EL-Beshsbeshy1, E. K. Mahmoud1, N. I. Abdelkader1, R. M. Al-Shal1, and A. M. Missaoui2   
  1 Soil Science and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt 2 Department Crop and Soil Sciences and Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, USA   
Salts reduces plant growth and yield. This study investigated to study the effect of different Nano-fertilizers (K2SO4- ZnO- SiO2) on alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) plants (Bulldog 505 and Mesa-Sirsa) grown under different salt stress (6&10 dS.m-1) in hydroponic system. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in shoot dry weight, plant height, No. of flowers, No. of tillers, root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight in their response to salt levels, nano-fertilizers treatments and its combination. Application of Nano- K2SO4 enhanced plant relative water, catalase activity in both genotypes and both salt concentration, while application of Nano-SiO2 to the susceptible genotype (Bulldog 505) resulted in enhancing electrolyte leakage and proline under both salt concentrations and application of Nano-K2SO4 with tolerant genotype (Mesa-Sirsa) under both salt concentration (6&10 dS.m-1) resulted in the lowest electrolyte leakage. application of Nano-ZnO increased plant Ca, Mg and microelements under both salt concentrations. Keywords: nanofertilizers, hydroponic system, salt stress, Nano- K2SO4, Nano-ZnO, Nano-SiO2      

Induction of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine by Zinc Oxide nanoparticles in pregnant rats after intravenous injection   
  Fouad A. Abou-Zaid1, Elsayed I. Salim1, Khaled Y. Abdel-Halim2, Naira M. Al-Fiky1,   
  1Zoology Department, Faculty of Tanta, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. 2Toxicology Department, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), 12618-Dokki, Giza, Egypt   
Quantification of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in pregnant rats was done after a single dose of Zinc oxide nanoparticles at 19th day of gestation. Single intravenous injections of 3.0 and 8.0 mg/kg (1/20 and 1/50 estimated LD50 respectively) of ZnONPs with size 10-30 nm were administered. Levels of 8-OHdG were measured using ELISA in samples of maternal serum, liver, spleen, fetus and placenta after 1, 6, 12, and 24 hrs of administration. The data show significantly detected levels of 8-OHdG in all collected samples from ZnONPs- administered animals as compared with untreated individuals. Maternal serum levels of 8-OHdG exhibited the greatest mean value; 110.08 ng/ml after 1 hr, followed by 102.61 ng/ml after 6 hr after 1/50 LD50 administration in serum samples. In liver, 8-OHdG levels exhibited 21.86, 14.83, 12.30, and 14.69 ng/g tissue after 1, 6, 12, and 24 hr, respectively after 1/50 LD50 administration. Spleen samples exhibited 8-OHdG levels greater than those in fetus and placenta for administration of 1/20 and 1/50 LD50. The findings indicate the ability of ZnONPs to inducing DNA genotoxicity in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Thus, exposure to such nano-material must be prevented or minimized during pregnancy and prenatal periods. (250 words)      

Nanofibers Science, Technology and applications   
  El-Refaie Kenawy   
  Chemistry Department, Polymer Research Group, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.   
Nanofiber technology is an exciting area attracting the attention of many researchers as a potential solution to the current challenges in the biomedical field such as drug delivery systems, burn and wound care, and treatment for various diseases. Nanofibers are attractive in this field for several reasons. First, there appear several amazing characteristics such as very large surface area to volume ratio (this ratio for a nanofiber can be as large as 103 times of that of a microfiber), flexibility in surface functionalities, and superior mechanical performance (e.g. stiffness and tensile strength) compared with any other known form of the material. Second, nanofibers can be fabricated into sophisticated macro-scale structures. The ability to fabricate nanofibers allows renewed efforts in developing hierarchical structures that mimic those in animals and human. On top of that, a wide range of polymers can be fabricated into nanofibers to suit different applications. Nanofibers are most commonly fabricated through electrospinning, which is a low cost method that allows control over fiber morphology and is capable of being scaled-up for mass production. This lecture will explore the popular areas of nanofiber development especially in the field biomedical applications.      

Synthesis and impact of apoptotic effects of gemcitabine loaded on albumin nanoparticles with and without coating with chitosan on MCF-7 cell line.   
  Elsayed I. Salim a, Eman A. M. Abd El Khalik c, Thanaa I. Shalaby, Ehab M.M. Ali b,c*   
  aResearch Lab. of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. b Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. cDivision of Biochemistry, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science Tanta University, 31527, Tanta, Egypt. d Medical Biophysics Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt.   
Avoiding the harmful side effects of gemcitabine and improvement of its therapeutic efficacy, the human serum albumin (HSA), was used as a targeting moiety of drug carriers for cancer therapy. A gemcitabine loaded albumin nanoparticles and a gemcitabine loaded on ANPs coated with chitosan were prepared by desolvation process. The negative charges of ANPS were shifted to positive charges by coating with chitosan. The size and surface potential value of NPs were evaluated by TEM and Zeta potential to be (100, - 2.74) nm; (170, 39.5) and (200, 38.5) nm for ANPS; GEM-ANPs; GEM-ANPs/ CS respectively. The antitumor activity of targeted GEM-ANPS/Cs and GEM-ANPS was more effective than GEM alone. The encapsulation efficiency of the synthetic delivery system of GEM-ANPS/CS was 75% and the rate of drug release during 48 hours was 0.0113 μg/min. The IC50 concentrations were 70 μg/ml for GEM-ANPs/ CS; 92 μg/ml for GEM-ANPs and 100 μg/ml for free GEM after 72 hours of incubation with the cells. Using RT-qPCR technique elucidated that the tumor suppressor RRM1 gene expression was down regulated while P53 and caspase3 were up regulated in case of cells treated with GEM-ANPS/CS, GEM-ANPS as compared with MCF-7 treated with GEM alone. Using modified ANPs coated with chitosan for gemcitabine delivery and targeting improved its therapeutic index against MCF-7 cells; enhanced its antitumor activity and exhibited more potent apoptotic effects than GEM alone.      

Synthesis, Characterization and evaluating the behavior of curcumin nanoemulsions as photosensitizer agent on MCF-7 cell line   
  Eman A. M. Abd El khalik M.Sc.a, , Thanaa I. Shalabyb, Doha.M.Beltagy c , Mai.A. Elkeeya, Tarek M.Mohamed. a   
  a Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University. , 31527, Tanta, Egypt b Medical Research Center, Alexandria University. C, Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhur University.   
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive tumor targeting strategy, in which tumor tissues can be selectively destroyed. Upon excitation with light of a specific wavelength, a photosensitizer can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of molecular oxygen, thereby exhibiting a cytotoxic effect toward the surrounding tissues, giving a total control on the onset of therapy. In this research work, curcumin as a natural photosensitizer has been investigated against cancer cells. Physicochemical characterizations revealed that the prepared formulations were in the nanoscale range with average particle size 20nm and had a negativeζ-potential -67.8. Upon examination using a Zeta sizer instrument, curcumin nanoemulsion were able to generate ROS and destroy tumor cells. Moreover, exhibited significant cyototoxicity on MCF-7.The IC50 of curcumin nanoemulsion was 500ng/ml after 24hr incubation time with MCF-7. One of the principal areas of research in this study has been within the report of knowledge concerning cell biology and signal transduction pathways, in relation to transcription factors, cell cycle regulation, inflammation and cell death. Some of these signal transduction pathways are activated by PDT. There is an acute stress reaction leading to changes in cellular metabolism following PDT treatment which may result in apoptosis or cell survival. These effects commonly lead to induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway involving caspases and release of cytochrome c. However, under certain conditions cells subjected to PDT die by necrosis. Areas of interest concerning signal transduction pathways would be calcium expression levels, lipid metabolism effects, tyrosine kinase expression, transcription factors, cell adhesion molecules and cytokines and all this biochemical parameters were studied in the present study inorder to evaluate the activity of curcumin nanoemulsion.      

Electrospun Bimetallic Cr/Zn Layered Double Hydroxide nanofibers for Electrochemical Sensing Application   
  Mona Elfiky and Nehal Salahuddin   
  Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt   
The present study shows a facile method to fabricate bimetallic (Cr/Zn) layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanofibers (NFs) with efficient adsorptive and electroactive properties for electrochemical sensing application. This was achieved by electrospinning of hydrated (Cr/Zn) nitrate /polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend solution, followed by calcination treatment at 550oC for 6 hours. The electroactivity and specific surface area of the developed nanofibers were changed by changing the molar ratio of Bimetallic cations (Cr+3: Zn+2). Thus, the obtained (Cr/Zn) LDH NFs were used to modify the carbon-based electrochemical sensor (MCPS). The developed sensor also showed a significant improvement in electrical conductivity as mentioned from the cyclic voltammetry measurements of the K3[Fe(CN)6] probe. Consequently, the square wave anodic adsorptive voltammetric (SW-AdASV) signals of MCPSs were compared with bare CPS. The developed sensors revealed more selectivity, catalytic properties, and offer higher sensitivity compared to unmodified CPS, which makes it a promising material for electrochemical sensing application.      

Nano-hybrid based on polypyrrole/chitosan/grapheneoxide magnetite decoration for dual function in water remediation and it's use to form fashionable colored product   
  Nehal.A.Salahuddin* , Hosny.A. EL-Daly, Rehab .G .El Sharkawy and Beshoy.T. Nasr   
  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527, Tanta, Egypt   
Water treatment has become immensely challenging. Exploring new, fast and cost effective with high efficacy is a great demand for remedying polluted water. A new synthesis route for generating magnetic hybrid based on magnetite-PPy/CS/GO nanohybrid material has been reported. First, intercalated CS/GO was prepared followed by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole and in-situ growth of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the nanohybrid. Fe(ш) ions is employed as both oxidant for pyrrole to initiate polymerization and as precursor of Fe3O4. Exfoliated GO sheets decorated with spherical and rod magnetic cubic phase was observed. This strategy seems easy without employing additional oxidant or complicated steps. The point of zero charge of the hybrid was determined using pH drift method to be 6.8. The synthesized hybrid has saturated magnetization of 17 emu/g. The prepared hybrid showed high adsorption efficiency relevant to purification of Ponceau 4R (P4R) dye contaminated water with easily magnetic separation. Furthermore, the prepared magnetic hybrid showed antimicrobial and antifungal efficacy against E-Coli and Fusarium fungi respectively. Several important parameters influencing the adsorption of dye such as sorbent mass (0.005, 0.007, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 g), dye concentration(2.4, 2.88, 3.36, 3.84, 4.32 ppm), pH (2,4,6,8,10,12), salt concentration (0.05,0.1,.137 M), temperature (303, 308, 313, 323K ) and contact time ( 210 min ) were considered . The highest removal efficiency was attained (85%) at pH=2, and the optimum parameters achieved are: adsorbent amount (0.01 g), initial dye concentration (2.88ppm) with a good stability up to 4 reuse cycles. Adsorption processes of M-PPy/CS/GO could be well described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Also, the resulted hybrid loaded dye was immobilized onto polymethylmethacrylate in the presence of urea to form colored fashionable product.      

Fabrication of Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Embedded Titanium for Efficient Removal of Methylene Blue from Water: Photocatalytic Activities and Luminescence studies   
  Tarek A. Fayed, Marwa N. El-Nahass, Hosni El-Daly, Amal Shoukry   
  Faculty of Science, Tanta University   
Herein, three types of mesoporous molecular sieves embedded titanium, Ti-SBA-15, Ti-SBA-16, and Ti-MCM-41 were synthesized and characterized by sets of spectroscopic techniques. The photocatalytic activities and luminescence behavior of the synthesized mesoporous molecular sieves were studied for the efficient removal of methylene blue from water. The results showed that Ti-SBA-15 was the highest one over the other ones. The fluorescence intensity of MB decreased sharply in the presence of the photocatalysts and this is in a good agreement with the absorption measurements. Additionally, the adsorption of the dye on the surface of the photocatalysts, can be examined by steady-state fluorescence measurements and by adding different amounts of the investigated photocatalysts, confirming the strong binding between MB and the photocatalysts. The reusability of the photocatalysts for the degradation of the dye has been studied for five cycles. Finally, the photocatalytic removal of MB in a system in which superoxide radical was key active species can be improved by adding hole scavengers to inhibit recombination of holes and electrons      

Behavior of surface coated zirconium silicate-nanopolyaniline with zerovalent copper (ZrSiO4@NPANI@nZVCu) toward catalytic reduction of nitroanilines   
  Magda E. Abouelanwar,Mohamed E. Mahmoud, Mohamed F. Amira, Seleim M. Seleim   
  Faculty of Sciences, Alexandria University   
Nitroanilines (NAs) are listed as hazard contaminants in water and aquatic life according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) due to their toxicity and explosive nature. Therefore, removal of these pollutants from water or conversion of their structures to less toxic and less explosive are generally aimed by different approaches and techniques. The most important strategy to accomplish this target is related to the catalytic reduction of nitro into amino functional group. Therefore, a new catalyst was designed and assembled in this work by microwave surface coating of zirconium silicate-nanopolyaniline with zerovalent copper to produce ZrSiO4@NPANI@nZVCu catalyst. The assembled catalyst was characterized and confirmed by different instrumental and surface techniques including FT-IR, TGA, SEM, XRD and surface area determination. Three nitro derivatives, viz 2-nitroaniline (2NA), 3-nitroaniline (3NA) and 4-nitroaniline (4NA) were selected to investigate and evaluate their reduction behaviors into amino derivatives by the reductive action of ZrSiO4@NPANI@nZVCu catalyst. The collected results from this study confirmed that nZVCu was the active center in ZrSiO4@NPANI@nZVCu catalyst and responsible for the electron transfer process between NaBH4 to nitroanilines. Catalytic reactions of nitroanilines (NAs) were established with rate constant k = 0.188, 0.246 and 0.114 min-1 for 2NA, 3NA and 4NA, respectively at 298K in presence of excess concentration of NaBH4 to achieve pseudo-first order conditions. In addition, the effect of reaction temperature on the catalytic reduction of NAs by ZrSiO4@NPANI@nZVCu catalyst was also investigated to evaluate the thermodynamic parameters and set up the isokinetic relationship and mechanism. Other important experimental controlling parameters on the catalytic reduction processes of NAs by ZrSiO4@NPANI@nZVCu catalyst such as pH and temperature of reaction were also studied and evaluated in this work.      

Thermo-triggered drug release from targeting magnetic polyurethane urea nanocomposite.   
  Nehal Salahuddin, Ahmed Rehab, Sahar Abd elghany   
  Chemistry Department, Faculty of science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt   
Delivering the drug to the right target cells with the right concentration is still a great challenge especially in fighting against cancer. To achieve efficient therapeutic effect and limit side effects, a thermo-triggered drug release is designed. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) with diameter size ranged from 5 to 25nm was synthesized, loaded by Norfloxacin (NOR) as a model drug and coated with polyurethane urea(PUU). PUU was prepared using isophoron diisocyanate, polyethylene glycol with different molecular weight (400,600) and water as chain extender without using solvent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination revealed that PUU NPs took the shape of spheres with average diameter 55nm. Coating of SPIO (60emu/g) by PUU did not affect the magnetic properties (40 emu/g). Drug loading percentage, percentage of SPIO and composition of PUU influenced the release behavior. The release of drug exhibited a temperature dependent. At 25-30°C, Non encapsulated drug is released while at slightly elevated temperature 37°C, a sustained release of the drug was observed. At 45°C a burst release was observed. The mechanism of drug release was studied by applying zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell models and Korsmeyer- Peppas equation. The cytotoxic effect of SPIO and SPIO-PUU nanocomposite against Mammary gland (MCF-7) and Human lung fibroblast cell line (WI38) was investigated in vitro by using colorimetric MTT assay and IC50 was calculated. The antimicrobial efficacy was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, K. pneumonia and Salmonella.      

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