Waste recycling (electronic – industrial – agricultural)             No Of Abstract is : 11  
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  Prof. Dr. MM Morad   
  قسم الهندسة الزراعية – كلية الزراعة – جامعة الزقازيق    
The present study was carried out to improve the performance of local hammer mill by using a developed feeding device. Experiments were conducted to select some different operating parameters affecting the fineness degree of mash and evaluate the developed hammer mill from the economic point of view. Two Experiments were carried out . The first experiment was conducted on feeding unit to optimize parameters affecting on hammer mill feeding rate, these parameters are six auger intake hole areas and three auger rotational speeds. The second experiment was carried out on hammer mill to optimize some operating parameters affecting its performance (rotational drum speed, Feed rate and hole-screen diameter). The obtained results reveal to the following: 1- The proper conditions for operating the feeding unit are: - Auger rotational speed of 500 rpm - Intake hole area of 25, 27.5 and 35 cm2 to be compatible with milling unit feeding rate 400,800 and 1250. 2- The proper conditions for operating the milling unit are : - Fine milled corn (FMC): under hammer mill rotational speed of 3000 rpm ,feed rate 400 kg/h and screen hole diameter of 6 mm - Medium milled corn (MMC): under hammer mill rotational speed of 3000 rpm ,feed rate800 kg/h and screen hole diameter of 8 mm - coarse milled corn (CMC): under hammer mill rotational speed of 1500 rpm ,feed rate 400 kg/h and screen hole diameter of 12 mm      

Optimize the Shredder machine to recycle the potato residues as a raw materials to feed different animals   
  Fouda. T. Z.,1 Assad A. D.1 and Ali M. A. El.2   
  Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt    
Field crop residues have become a heavy problem of the Egyptian farmer. To get rid of this trouble, being resorted out burned in the open field. Whereas some farmers use these as heels, as rich get fern it a media for spreading diseases. That causes environmental disaster and dangerous healthy problem. Potatoes haulm around 8 – 9 % of the total residues (18-25 million tons annually). The potato crop which cultivated annually in the lugs of the three (Winter, Nile and Summer) total area within the limits of 450 thousand acres and estimated the haulm of potatoes for the area cultivated about 1,575 million tons with an average of about 3.5 tons per acre of haulm potato in Egypt,. To optimize the shredder machine using four levels of drum speed (1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 rpm), & reduce the number of knives from 68 to 48 and under three feeding rates (600, 800, and 1000 kg/h), to measure the mean weight length, fuel consumption, power consumed, energy-consuming and machine performance efficiency. The mean length cut weight between (6.608 and 10.627 mm) resulted to have some suitable mean weight lengths for feed different animals The optimum results and parameters for shredder machine untie when using drum speed 1600 rpm, 1000 kg /h feeding rates, and 68 number of knives. 0.985 Mg/h productivity, 19.123 kW power, 19.414 kW.h/Mg energy , 6.046 l/h fuel consumption, 99 % cutting efficiency , 85% percentages of softness degree , and 9.850 l.E/h cost analysis.      

  Mariam, M. M.*; A. F. Abdel Mottaleb   
  المركز القومى للبحوث الزراعية    
Theoretical analysis was carried out to design and construct a local compost screening unit to achieve maximum cleaning efficiency. Theoretical analysis was conducted to estimate optimum sieve speed, optimum screen opening size, optimum sieve inclination angle. Maximum required power was estimated in order to provide the machine with the suitable source of power. The machine shaft was designed so as to save it from over loads and the high stresses. Theoretical analysis reveal that the local compost screening unit is preferred to be constructed under the following conditions: - The sieve revolutions number should be lower than 43 rpm. - The screen opening size should be of about 13 mm. - The slope angle of the cylindrical sieve on the horizontal plane (sieve inclination angle) should be lower than 27 degrees. - The motor power required for screening compost must be not less than 3.68 kW ( 5.0 hp ). - The machine shaft must be designed at a 70 mm diameter.      

  M.M. Eltarhuny   
  المعهد العالى للتقنيات الزراعية طرابلس ليبيا    
Remove the crop residues from soil one of the serious problems facing the agricultural producer is to , especially after harvesting long-stalk plants. The efficiency of machines depends upon the removed plant, plant conditions (density and moisture content), machine type and machine forward speedMachines performance was evaluated in terms of field capacity and field efficiency, cutting height and cutting efficiency added cutting energy. The performance of some different machines(self-propelled harvester and shredder machine ) used in clearing land from residues of some field crops (corn stalks and barley straw) was experimentally investigated as a function of change in machine forward speed. The experimental results reveal that the energy requiements was in the optimum range under the following conditions: - The use of shredder machine in removing corn, and The self-propelled harvesting in removing barley straw. - Working at a forward speeds between 3 to 5 km/h, and 2 to 4km/h for removing barley straw and corn stalks respectively.      

Impact of industrial areas on heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils in the middle Nile Delta, Egypt   
  Ahmed El Baroudy,bJosé Meroño, cSaskia Keesstra, dArtemi Cerdà   
  ,*Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. bDepartamento de Ingeniería Gráfica y Geomática, Cordoba University, Spain. cSoil physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University, Droeyendaalsesteeg 4, 6708PB. Wageningen, Netherlands. dSoil erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography. Universitat de València,BlascoIbañez, 28, 46010 Valencia, Spain.    
Abstract. Pollution as a consequence of industrial development has been an environmental issue since the industrial revolution. In the past few decades, soil contamination with heavy metals due to industrialization has increasingly become a problem in Egypt. This study assesses heavy metal (Zn, Cd and Pb) pollution in soils adjacent to factories in the Kafr El-Zayat region, Egypt, as an example of changes in agriculture soil quality close to industrial development areas in developing countries. Geostatistical techniques were used to interpolate heavy metal concentrations. The contamination factor (CF), potential contamination index (PCI), pollution load index (PLI) and geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) were estimated to investigate the status of heavy metal contamination at fifty sampling sites at 0-30 cm soil depth. The CF showed low contamination for Zn, very high contamination for Cd and moderate to considerable contamination for Pb. According to the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classification, this area was considered as unpolluted with Zn, strongly/extremely polluted to extremely polluted with Cd and unpolluted to moderately polluted with Pb. According to the PLI, all sampling sites suggest deterioration of soil quality. The spatial distribution of CF, Igeo and PLI for heavy metals showed that the highest values were located close to factories producing paper, pesticides, fertilizers, oil and soap. The Kafr El-Zayat region is an example of how the pollution of agriculture soils by industry highlights the critical need to make a concerted effort to address the soil pollution issue. Keywords: Contamination factor, pollution load index, geo-accumulation Index, GIS, Nile Delta      

Recycling: Economical and Environmental Benefits for Egyptian Economy   
  Ibrahim Mosaad Elatroush   
  Department of Economics, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt    
Recycling issue witnessed a great concern in last decades in which efficacy of waste recycling is one of the key factors of environmental sustainability. All nations, developed and developing, are suffering in different rates from the consequences of rapid industrial growth and the substantial need for recycling. This paper investigates the positive impacts of recycling on eliminating environmental damages or negative externalities of solid, E-wastes and liquid wastes. In addition, it enhances positive externalities on social and economical aspects, which positively affects the performance of the Egyptian economy as a whole. Economic incentives or reward schemes play a major role in eliminating wastes and increasing economic return through recycling. The paper also focuses on the side effects of imported recycled Ewastes and their negative impacts on health and economy, and needed legislations to overcome such effects. Moreover, the paper focuses on the economic impact of textiles recycling since textiles are nearly 100% recyclable. Additionally, the paper emphasizes the important role of changing norms and highlights the role of economic motivations to orient households and society toward recycling. Finally, the paper sets possible solutions that give attention to the significant role of recycling on eliminating environmental damages along with maximizing economic returns for the Egyptian economy.      

Field Incorporation of Sawdust plus Urea and Its Effect on Bare Soil Properties   
  A.A. Abd El-Halim   
  Department of Soil and Water, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta, Egypt, Tel: 0020403455584, Fax: 0020403455570 *    
In Egypt, fresh fine sawdust is an easily available cheap organic waste, at little or no cost, which is obtained as a by-product of a lumber sawmill and considered one of agricultural wastes that has not been used in other products. A continuous removal of such wastes from the production sites to be transformed into effective and low price soil amendments has become necessary. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of incorporation two rates of fresh fine sawdust (SD1, 6 t ha-1 and SD2, 12 t ha-1) into the bare soils with one rate of nitrogen fertilizer (250 kg ha-1) on soil physical and chemical properties compared to soils with no additions of sawdust and nitrogen fertilizer (control treatment). This study was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Al Gharbiya governorate, Egypt in a clay loam soil (Vertic Torrifluvents, Thermic, and Torric soil moisture regime). The carbon to nitrogen ration (C/N ration) raised by 49% for the SD1 and 76% for the SD2 over the control treatment. Also, the soil pH, EC, and bulk density decreased by 1.4, 7.75, and 5% for the SD1 and 1.7, 14.09, and 7.75% for the SD2, respectively, over the control treatment. Incorporated fresh fine sawdust with nitrogen accelerator into the uncultivated fallow soil for nine months or less can narrow C/N ratio to the optimal ratio, decrease soil salinity, conserve moisture in the 20-cm soil depth, and reduce crack development at the end of the experimental study.      

Handling technology of date palm to reduce waste and used as energy environmentally friendly fuel.   
  Ayman H. Amer Eissa   
  Agriculture Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufiya University, Shibin El-Kom, EGYPT    
The agricultural crop residuals are considered one of the most important problems, which face the environmental life and farmers in the world. The mechanical treatment by cutting, crushing or chopping and briquetting processes are the primary step and the suitable solution for solving this problem and recycling these residuals to be transformed into useful products. So the aim of the present work to get a high quality for agriculture residues such as date palm stalks (Fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes. Chopped date palm stalks (Palm fronds), date palm leaflets having moisture content (8, 10 and 12%) and (8, 10 and 12.8% w.b.) were densified into briquettes without binder and with binder (Urea-Formaldhyde) using a screw press machine. Quality properties for briquettes were durability, compression ratio hardness, bulk density, compression ratio, resiliency, water resistance and gases emission. The optimum quality properties found for briquettes at 8 % moisture content and without binder. Where the highest compression stress and durability were 8.95, 10.39 MPa and 97.06 %, 93.64 % for date palm stalks (Palm fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes, respectively. The CO and CO2 emissions for date palm stalks (Fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes were less than these for loose residuals.      

التقييم الجغرافي البيئي لمكبّات القمامة العمومية بمحافظة المنوفية- دراسة جغرافية   
  د. صبحي رمضان فرج سعد   
  مدرس جغرافية البيئة بكلية الآداب- جامعة المنوفية- مصر    
تمثل إدارة مخلفات القمامة إحدى المشكلات البيئية التي تواجه العديد من المجتمعات، وواحدة من أخطر القضايا التي تواجه الإدارة البيئية في مصر. وتم إنشاء منظومة للنظافة بمدن محافظة المنوفية عام 2006م، ثم توسعت لتشمل قرى المحافظة. إلا أنها ما زالت تشهد خللاً في نظام إدارة المخلفات؛ نظراً لعدم كفاية المعدات وحالتها المتهالكة، بالإضافة إلى عدم الاستفادة من المخلفات بشكل كامل وعدم التخلص النهائي من جميع المخلفات. ويبلغ عدد مكبّات القمامة العمومية بمحافظة المنوفية ستة مكبّات، تتوزع على ستة مراكز إدارية، بمساحة إجمالية تصل إلى 122519 متر مربع تقريباً، يلتحق بثلاثة منها مصانع لفرز وتدوير القمامة وإنتاج السماد العضوي، وثلاثة أخرى تفتقد إلى هذه الخدمة. ويستهدف البحث تقييم حالة مكبّات القمامة القائمة بالمحافظة ومدى مطابقتها للاشتراطات البيئية، والتي من أهمها السعة والموقع الجغرافي في ضوء اتجاهات الرياح السائدة والبعد عن الكتل السكنية المحيطة، بالإضافة إلى اشتراطات الأمان وحالة الفرز والانبعاث الغازي وغيرها. وقد أظهرت الدراسة تردي حالة أغلب المكبّات وعدم مطابقتها للمواصفات، والحاجة العاجلة لتوفيق أوضاعها أو إغلاقها ونقلها إلى مواقع بديلة، على أن يتضمن تخطيط المواقع القائمة أو البديلة إلحاق مصانع لتدوير القمامة وإنتاج السماد العضوي بطاقة إنتاجية عالية؛ للتقليل من حدة التلوث الناتج عن الاشتعال الذاتي والعصارة السائلة التي تضر بالأراضي الزراعية المجاورة، وتخفيض كلفات النقل وكميات القمامة الحية بالمردم الصحي، إلى جانب الانتفاع بعوائد فرز وتدوير المواد القابلة للتدوير.      

  T. Z. Fouda* and H. Kassem**   
  *Prof., of Agric. Eng. Dept., Fac. of Agric., Tanta Univ **PhD, Fac. of Agric., Tanta Univ    
Animal wastes from cattle and buffalos became is a problems which face the farmers in Egypt. Also plastic wastes such as deposits of plastic storage containers for chemical materiel cause environmental pollution. The aim of this case study was recycling the animal wastes and reuses the deposits of plastic storage containers as a small reactor unit heated by solar energy to produce biogas and evaluate underground small size digesters under operating parameters such as different of hydraulic of retention time (HRT) from 7 to 42 day and digesters positions (up ground and underground) digesters as a function with final product l/d, biogas cumulative (l) and biogas energy (MJ/ /day). The obtained results show that the highest biogas production was observed in up ground digester type about 28.64 l/d. Meanwhile the lowest was 19.10 l/d with underground digester. The results indicated that increasing the HRT from 7 to 42 days led to increase the biogas cumulative rate from (21.94 to 155.86) and from (19.1 to 141.32) l at up ground and underground digester respectively. While increasing in the HRT from 7 to 35 days lead to increase the daily average biogas energy from (0.284 to 0.370) and from (0.282 to 0.340) MJ/day at the same conditions.      

  ENG.Abdelbaki F. Albastawisi1 ,DR.Alaa El-Din Sharkawi2 , DR.Ayman I. Bakry3,DR. Magda El-Fakharany3   
  1,2Structural Engineering Department, 3Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31521, Egypt.    
Open air burning of agricultural wastes is a major environmental problem in Egypt. Producing pozzolanic materials out of some agricultural wastes is well applied in construction field. One such usage of this waste is to produce energy by different technologies, such as gasification. In this paper, a detailed experimental investigation was implemented to study the pozzolanic quality and efficiency of ashes resides after producing energy by gasification using some common local agricultural wastes. The experimental study explored the effect of partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), on mortar/paste specimen’s properties, with Fly Ash (FA) or some ashes reside of the gasification for rice husk, rice straw, cotton stalks, palm ribs and water reed stem. Cement mortar/paste specimens were made of varied dosages of partial replacement for OPC with ashes partial ranged between 10% - 30% of the cement weight. The properties evaluation was conducted based on the standard physical and chemical requirements of ASTM "C311". It has been observed that replacement of cement to the extent of approximately 10% by weight of cement was found to give the optimum results for the 28 days strength, maximum strength was 31.6N/mm2 for husk ash sample (H35) with reduction about 10.6%of the control sample and minimum strength was 19.81N/mm2 for water reed stem ash sample (RS1) with reduction about 43.9% of the control sample. On the other hand, fly ash sample (F.A) strength was 23.8N/mm2 with reduction about 32.6% of the control sample.      


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