Poster Session             No Of Abstract is : 32  
Prof. Alaa Masoud Coordinator :
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Life Style Induced Psychosocial Stressors Influencing Neurobehavioral & Hormonal Aspects In Obese Subjects With Subclinical Hypothyroidism   
  EL-Dardiry SA1, Raafat R1, Zahran S2 , Shahba A3   
  Departments of Medical Biochemistry1, Internal Medicine3, Faculty of Medicine Tanta University Department of Pharmacology2 Faculty of Pharmacy Pharos University   
The study aims to elaborate the correlation between role of sedentary life style, psychosocial stresses and oxidative stress via the relationship of subclinical hypothyroidism, obesity induced inflammatory status and relative parameters of hormonal milieu. The influence of insulin resistance and of selected adipocytokines would be determined in obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome in relevance to alterations of hypertension, trace elements and of mood disorders indices. Study design: the study includes twenty obese subjects with or without subclinical hypothyroidism (Group I & Group II), twenty cases with metabolic syndrome with and without subclinical hypothyroidism (Group III & Group IV) and a control group of age matched (40-50 years) healthy subjects. Correlation of the following parameters would include monitoring of fatty acid synthase, Ghrelin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), apelin, total antioxidant capacity, serum zinc, selenium, magnesium, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, T3 and T4. Results: alterations in monitored parameters appear to be potentiated by the impact of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension which altogether influence mood disorders. Their impact on the co-link between renin- angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS) and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) via role of ACE was influenced by both obesity and metabolic syndrome. However insulin resistance was more pronounced by additive impact of subclinical hypothyroidism influencing antioxidant status and mood. Conclusion: the mutual alleviation of psychosocial stress and oxidative stress- induced inflammatory status are important coordinates in therapeutic strategies for mood disorders posed by obesity induced insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.      

The Influence Of Cigarette Smoking And Obesity On Depression And Infertility In Male Egyptian Subjects   
  EL-Dardiry SA1, Safwat O1, Zahran S2 ,Aboufarha M3 , Marwa N. Emam4   
  Departments of Medical Biochemistry1, Urology3, Physiology 4 Faculty of Medicine Tanta University Department of Pharmacology2 Faculty of Pharmacy Pharos University   
Aim of work: The study aims to monitor the cumulative burden of oxidative stress via cigarette smoking and environmental induced obesity and their coordinated roles in development of inflammatory status associated with depression and male infertility. Study design: forty male obese subjects (as assessed by body mass index) with age range (30± 6.1) were equally sub-classified into four groups based on the existence of depression (as assessed by dopamine levels), infertility (as assessed by sperm count and motility) and cigarette smoking (as assessed by cotinine level). Group I included 10 depressed fertile non-obese non-smoker subjects, Group II included 10 depressed fertile obese and smoker subjects, Group III included 10 depressed infertile non-obese and non-smoker subjects, Group IV included depressed infertile obese and smoker subjects and Group V of 10 healthy non-smoker and non-obese subjects were taken for comparison. Biochemical assessment for all subjects included evaluation of the circulating levels of hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIFα), Interleukin1β (I1β), leptin, cortisol, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, cotinine level and trace elements (zinc, copper and manganese). Results: the pivotal involvement of (HIFα), (I1β), leptin and oxidative stress parameters in the pathogenesis of depression and infertility was evidently more profound in obese and smoker diseased subjects when compared to non-obese non-smoker diseased subjects. Conclusion: modulation of obesity dysregulated metabolism alongside adjustment of body weight and antioxidant supplementations is essential beside cessation of smoking and regular daily exercise with long term change in life style which could be potentially beneficial in management strategy for those diseased subjects.      

Osteoarthritis In Rural & Urban Habitat Of Egyptian Subjects Complex Impact Of History Of Schistosomiasis, Diabetes & Obesity.   
  EL-Dardiry SA1, Zahran S2, Ghanem HB1, Aboufarha A3, Shahba A4, Abou El-Azm A5   
  Departments of Medical Biochemistry1, Orthopedics3, Internal Medicine4, Tropical Medicine5, Faculty of Medicine Tanta University Department of Pharmacology2 Faculty of Pharmacy Pharos University   
AIM OF WORK: Assessment of metabolic link to oxidative stress induced inflammatory microenvironment contributing to knee osteoarthritis (OA) would be monitored relative to impact of rural habitat presenting past history of Schistosoma (PHS) versus urban habitat influenced by life style posed by obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN: Forty cases with knee OA (50-60 years) included 20 non obese cases from rural area with PHS involving 10 non-diabetic (GI) and 10 diabetic (GII) cases as well 20 obese cases with OA living in urban districts included 10 non-diabetic (GIII) and 10 diabetic (GIV) cases & 10 healthy subjects represent control group (GV). Biochemical analysis included glycemic indices (fasting & post prandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin ), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low & high density lipoprotein ,triacylglycerol), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) , interleukin Iβ (IL-1β), angiopoietin-like protein 4 ( ANGLP-4), visfatin, antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), serum zinc (Zn) & magnesium (Mg) and bone resorption biomarker (receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL). RESULTS: Manifestations of knee OA in selected cases were displayed by assessed increments of RANKL, TNF α, IL-1β, NO, MDA, HbAIc, ANGLP4& visfatin versus decrements of serum Zn, Mg & antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSION: In order to enlighten future therapeutic strategies to Egyptian subjects with OA, the study focused on comparing the influence of PHS, T2DM & obesity on cartilage damage based on socioeconomic status. This necessitates new preventive measures to retard crippling outcome of knee OA.      

Mechanical Ventilator as a Major Cause of Infection and Drug Resistance in Intensive Care Unit   
  Marwa M. E. Abd El-Monsef   
  Lecturer of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University   
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent infection in intensive care units (ICU). It is associated with high rates of long morbidity and mortality. Management of a case of VAP is often said to add forty thousand dollars to hospital costs. All these data directed our interest to study the etiology, risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of VAP in ICU of Tanta University Hospital. Methods: This study included 36 cases of VAP. Endotracheal aspirates were obtained from all cases and microbiologically analyzed. Samples were collected over 1 year. Results: Forty two strains were isolated from 28 cases, while 8 cases showed no bacterial growth. The most frequent organism was Staphylococcus aureus (30.95 %), followed by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.43 % for each), and the least common was Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.38 %). Multi-drug resistance was detected in (76.5%) of the isolated bacteria in this study. Imipenem, amikacin, linezolid, vancomycin and levofloxacin are recommended to be the most effective drugs in management of VAP. Conclusion: VAP is a serious problem in ICU carrying many risks for the patient live. Regimens of empirical treatment should take in consideration the update in the bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of VAP.      

Mechanistic Study of the Anti-tumorigenic Effect of Metformin in Breast Cancer   
  Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Naglaa F. Khedr, Hoda A. El-Bahrawy, Hend E. Abo Mansour   
  Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt   
Background:Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and the most likely cause of death in women worldwide.Metformin (MET) has demonstrated anti-tumorigenic effect both in vivo and in vitro. Objective: The present work was designed to examine on molecular level the mode of action of MET in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC)and to evaluate the use of MET in conjunction with doxorubicin(DOX) as a combined therapy against SEC. Methods:Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were inoculated in sixty female mice as a model of breast cancer. The mice were divided into four equal groups: Control tumor, MET group, DOX group and MET + DOX group. MET (15mg/kg) and DOX (4mg/kg) were given to mice i.p. for four cycles every five days starting at 12thday of inoculation. Results:The anti-tumorigenic effect of MET was mediated by enhancement of AMPK activity in tumor tissueand elevation of p53 proteinas well as suppression of NF-kB, DNA content and cyclin D1 gene expression.Co-administration ofMET and DOX markedly decreased tumor volume, increased survival rate and improved other parameterscompared to either treatment alone. In parallel, the histopathological findings demonstrated enhanced apoptosis, decreased mitosis and absence of necrosis and angiogenesis in tumor tissue of co-treatment group. Conclusion: MET proved anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and apoptosis enhancing properties, which all could be attributed to the activation of AMPK enzyme. Combining MET and DOX, which exhibit different mechanisms of action, produced greater efficacy as anticancer therapeutic regimen.      

Ferulic acid and fish oil upregulate PPAR-γ gene expression and protect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity   
  Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Naglaa F. Khedr, Hoda A. El-Bahrawy, Sara A. Helal   
  Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt   
Background: The use of complementary alternative medicine has becoming increased in the last decade. Ferulic acid (FrA) and fish oil (FO) are natural products containing phenolic compounds and ω-3 PUFA, respectively. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective role of FrA and FO in gentamicin(GM)-induced nephrotoxicity rat model. Methods: Forty four male rats were divided into 2 groups: GM group and control group. GM group was divided into 3 subgroups; GM control, FrA group and FO group. The three groups were injected with GM (40 mg/kg) i.p. for 9 consecutive days. FrA (100 mg/kg) and FO (5 ml/kg) were given to rats orally daily for 10 days prior to GM. Renal function was assessed by serum BUN, creatinine and urinary NAG activity. The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by measuring renal resolvin E1 and gene expression of PPAR-γ. The antioxidant activity was indicated by renal catalase (CAT) activity. Results: GM-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by the histopathological changes. Pretreatment with FrA or FO ameliorated nephrotoxic effect of GM as evidenced by the significant decrease of serum BUN and creatinine and urinary albumin and NAG activity. Both treatments significantly enhanced CAT activity and gene expression of PPAR-γ in renal tissue. Resolvin E1 was significantly elevated in FO but not FrA group. Conclusion: FrA and FO proved a renoprotective effect, which was mediated by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Because FrA and FO are natural products, they could provide a safe intervention strategy in cases of exposure to nephrotoxins.      

Gastroprotective Effect of Garlic in Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats   
  Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Eman G. Khedr, Hoda A. El-Bahrawy, and Hend M. Selim   
  Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, El-Bahr Street, Tanta, El-Gharbia, Egypt.   
Garlic, a natural plant, was documented to have a great history in the ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. Objectives: In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n=20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n= 20), (omeprazole group, n=30) and (garlic group, n=20). Each of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as single oral dose (100mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. Results: The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared to normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in omeprazole group; the preventive index in AGE group was 83.4% compared to 94.5% in omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH and NO. Conclusion: AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer.      

Nurses and environmental hazards in work place   
  Ebtesam Fathy Badran   
  SHE Quality coordinator in tanta teaching hospital, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt   
Nursing is a uniquely hazardous occupation. nurses may face hazards on-the-job, and provides illnesses and injuries among nurses . The risk of infections is present not only in hospitals but in other settings where nurses are employed such as nursing homes, institutions for the retarded, prisons, and outpatient facilities. Toxic exposure like, Antineoplastic agents may be prepared and administered in a variety of clinical settings. Back injury ranks second among all causes of occupational injuries for all occupations. It is reported that back related injuries related Nursing activities such as lifting patients in bed, helping patients out of bed, transferring patients from the bed, and carrying equipment weighing 30 pounds or greater are the most frequent causes of back pain .Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with mutagenic and teratogenic properties leading to an increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and other adverse reproductive outcomes, as well as cancers such as myelogenous leukemia, bone, and skin cancer. Nurses who work with terminally and chronically ill patients, and nurses who work in the intensive care units, emergency room, burn unit, or operating room are at particular risk for stress related symptoms. Nurses in mental health facilities have, for a long time, been the subjects of patient violence. In summary, nurses are subject to exposure to environmental hazards through their contact with patients, physical and psychological job demands, and as a result of the drugs and technology with which they work.      

Effect of Different Positions on Oxygen Saturation in Neonates with Respiratory Distress   
  Amal Abo El-Azm1, Rahma Soliman Bahgat1, Hamed Mohammed El –Sharkawy2   
  SHE 1Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, 2Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University   
Respiratory Distress is defined as the condition in which the patient is not able to get enough oxygen. This study aimed to determine the effect of different positions on Oxygen saturation of Respiratory Distressed Newborn. The Subjects of the study consisted of fifty neonates suffering from respiratory distress. Three Tools were used to collect the data: Structured Questionnaires Sheet, Physical Assessment Sheet and Position's Record's Sheet. Results The study revealed the best time for a maximum Oxygen saturation was 120 min in semi-fowler position in relation to other positions .Conclusion: It was concluded that changing the body position has an important effect on the Oxygenation of the neonates. It was found that semi- fowler position was the best position to improve Oxygen saturation rather than supine and prone positions. The duration required to achieve a maximum Oxygen saturation in the three positions is 120 minutes Recommendations: Encouraging nurses cared with respiratory distressed neonates in NICU to change Neonates' Positions every two hours as a routine nursing care.      

Nursing Practice Environment and its Relation to Work Engagement   
  Safaa A. Zahran1, Reda A. Abo Gad2, Merfat M. Al- Sayed 3   
  1 &2 Ass. Prof. of Nursing Administration- Faculty of Nursing- Tanta University, Egypt 3 B. Sc. N- Faculty of Nursing   
The overall goal of every healthcare organization is systematically, to develop and reinforce organizational strategies, structures, and processes that improve the organization’s effectiveness, particularly in achieving quality patient care, nurses work engagement and job satisfaction. The aim of the study was to assess the nursing practice environment and it's relation to work engagement. A descriptive design was used. The study was conducted at all departments of Tanta Main University Hospital. The study subject was included representative random sample of staff nurses (n= 475) who working at Tanta Main University Hospital. The collection of data was achieved using two tools: the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work and; Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The results of the study showed that high percentage of staff nurses had low level of perception regarding characteristics of nursing practice environment. On the others hand, more than half of them had moderate level of perception regarding characteristics of work engagement. There was a positive correlation between nursing practice environment characteristics and work engagement characteristics. It is recommended that conducting periodic assess of work environment, recognize weakness and non-favorable aspects and center efforts on its improvement, to reach high level of work engagement that reduce turnover and, establish and sustain safe and quality health services provision.      

Knowledge of preparatory students working in Agriculture about work hazards   
  Omima R. Rehap, Bassima E. Gowayed, Ikbal F. El-shafie, and Amaal M. El-Zeftawy   
  Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University   
Child labor is alarmingly prevalent in Egypt .Child agricultural workers are at a greater risk than adult workers. Furthermore, occupational hazards and work conditions may have permanent effects on the growth and development of children. Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of child labor in agriculture. Aim of the study: to assess the knowledge of preparatory school students working in agriculture about work hazards. Material and Methods: this study was conducted in five preparatory governmental schools (including both sexes) at five villages affiliated to Kafer ELzayat city Gharbia Governorate, Egypt as a representative of rural environment. Tool: A structured questionnaire sheet was developed and used by the researcher; it included data regarding socio-demographic data related to the students, past working experience of the child, previous complaints, history of hazards, safety and protective measures and knowledge of students about agriculture work hazards. Results: most of the studied students' source of information was from their parents and family and the majority of studied students had poor total knowledge score regarding the agriculture hazards. Conclusion and recommendations: The present study revealed that, the majority of studied students identified the elements of different agriculture hazards but had lack of knowledge regarding its health effects. It is recommended that the working children should receive full information and training from their employers about occupational hazards related to agricultural work. Such training should be conducted regularly and be understandable by children.      

  Mohamed GHONAME   
  Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture Engineering Department Tanta University, Egypt   
Environmental control is an important factor that effect on broiler performance and meat yield. Indoor air temperature is one of the most important environmental factors because, maintaining the correct air temperature is crucial in chicks brooding, especially during the first seven to ten days of the chick's life. Early in life, the chick is poorly equipped to regulate its metabolic processes to adequately control its body temperature. As a result, the young chick is dependent on environmental temperature to maintain optimal body temperature Supplemental heating systems play an important role in environmental management, especially during the brooding phase. However, in many locations for a portion of the growout supplemental heating may not be needed. The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively.      

  Shimaa SALAH   
  Tanta University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering Department, Egypt   
Citrus industry is an important component the Egyptian National income. Citrus cultivated area in Egypt reached nearly 382027 feddan in 2006, while area in due production reached 341718 feddan producing about 3211709 tons of citrus fruits. Harvested orange area in Egypt are 101421 (Ha) and the production are 2577720 tones .The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS), pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidity)and carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with growth substance were the lowest value of chlorophyll, a (chl,a) and chlorophyll, b (chl,b) as follow 0.42 and 0.45 (mg/100g) while with control management were the highest value to total soluble solid (Tss) and carotenoids (car.) as follow 10.07(Brix,%) and 15.77 (mg/100g). The pattern of changes was clearly observed from the absorption spectra of the green and orange When orange is fully ripe, chlorophyll would be greatly reduced or may disappear completely and carotenoids becomes the dominant pigment in the fruit surface.      

  H. S. Abdel-Galil*   
  Prof. of Agric. Eng., – Fac. of Agric. – Fayoum University.   
Four different poly-greenhouse models were compared with the open field condition at El-Azab village, Fayoum, Egypt Production of chilli pepper in greenhouses was an effective way of increasing the yield per unit area and enhancing its quality. Therefore, different sized poly-greenhouse ventilation gaps with 25% shade net and UV stabilized plastic film sheet materials were used. The thermal performance of the greenhouse models and their effects on the growth rate and yield of chilli pepper were investigated. The obtained results indicated that the air temperature in the open field condition was lower than in the poly-greenhouse treatments throughout the growth period of chilli peppers bushes. Production of chilli pepper in greenhouse was an effective way of increasing the yield per unit area and enhancing the quality. Poly-greenhouse model with ventilation gaps in the triangular roof and four sidewalls (T3) was found more suitable for better plant growth and yield of chilli pepper than those with the other ventilation gaps in poly-greenhouse models and open field condition.      

إدراك الريفيات لظاهرة التغيرات المناخية " دراسة حالة بمحافظة الغربية "   
  د. عبد الباقي موسي الشايب د. أحمد ماهر الجوهري م. إيمان مصطفى عبد المجيد   
  قسم الاقتصاد الزراغي، كلية الزارعة، جامعة طنطا، مصر   
استهدف هذا البحث بصفة رئيسية التعرف على مستوى إدراك الريفيات لظاهرة التغيرات المناخية بمحافظة الغربية؛ والتعرف على العلاقات الارتباطية بين المتغيرات المستقلة المدروسة وبين مستوى إدراك الريفيات للتغيرات المناخية؛ وتحديد إسهام المتغيرات المستقلة المدروسة في تفسير التباين في إدراك الريفيات للتغيرات المناخية. وقد أجري هذا البحث في محافظة الغربية, حيث تم اختيار أربع مراكز إدارية بطريقة عشوائية, وأسفر الاختيار عن مراكز المحلة الكبرى، وكفر الزيات، وقطور، والسنطة. وتم إختيار قرية من كل مركز عشوائيا, وأسفر الاختيار عن قري السجاعية، وإدشاى، وميت الشيخ، وميت غزال, على الترتيب. وتم إختيار عينة عشوائية من الريفيات من كل قرية, وأسفر الاختيار عن 26 مبحوثة بقرية السجاعية, و 30 مبحوثة بقرية إدشاي, و 30 مبحوثة بقرية ميت الشيخ, و 27 مبحوثة بقرية ميت غزال, وبذلك بلغ حجم العينة 113 مبحوثة. وتم جمع البيانات بواسطة إستمارة إستبيان بالمقابلة الشخصية تم إعدادها وفقا لأهداف البحث. وتم ترميز البيانات, وتفريغها, وقد تم استخدام أساليب التحليل الوصفي في عرض البيانات مثل التكرارات, والنسب المئوية, والمتوسط الحسابي, ومعامل الارتباط البسيط لبيرسون, ومعامل ثبات ألفا, وأسلوب التحليل الإرتباطي والإنحداري المتعدد التدريجي في تحليل بيانات هذه الدراسة. وجاءت أهم النتائج التي تم التوصل إليها كما يلي: 1- أن 89,4% من المبحوثات ذوي مستوى إدراك منخفض بظاهرة التغيرات المناخية، وأن 10,6% من المبحوثات ذوي مستوى إدراك متوسط بظاهرة التغيرات المناخية. 2- وجود علاقة ارتباطية معنوية بين كل من المؤهل الدراسي، والحالة المهنية، وعدد المصادر المعرفية، والتعرض الاعلامي، والإسهام الاجتماعى غير الرسمى. 3- أن متغيري الحالة المهنية, وعدد المصادر المعرفية فسرا نحو 26.4% من التباين الكلي في مستوى إدراك الريفيات لظاهرة التغيرات المناخية.      

  مركز بحوث الهندسة الزراعية-الدقى   
Agricultural residues represent an extreme problem in Egypt facing the people and state with economic, environmental and healthy aspects. The annual amount of crop residues is almost 25-35 million tons. Pelleting is considered to have an important role in animal performance. It is very useful in materials handling since it improves the specifications of the material. It increases bulk density and prevents the segregation of different ingredients. It is therefore very important to testify different parameters affecting pellet mill machines and choose the optimum operating conditions. Animal feed produce errs take always care about pellet quality which is affected by many factors. Pellets quality fundamentally affects the profitableness of the product and this mainly depends on mixing and pelting process one considered on important to improve the pellet specification such as bulk density, durability, hardiness and lowering costs and getting high quality in the same time. The main objective of this research was to manufacture and evaluate a compatible unit including mixing and pelleting to produce Rabbit feed pellets formula in one operation. The compatible was evaluated under operating parameters including four different retention time (2, 3.5,4 and 5min) and four L/D ratio (5:1 5.5:1, 6:1and 6.5:1) were investigated under the above mentioned parameters. The optimum results compatible unit were die L/D ratio of 5.5:1, 3.5min of mixing retention time, and rollers teeth width of 10mm. 427.87kg/h production rate 37.96 kW.h/ton energy requirement.88.29% mixing efficiency, 0.671gm /cm3 bulk density, 93.21% durability, 49.01N hardiness, and 566.36 LE/ton using residues formulation.      

  Samier SHALABY, Amina ALBEBANY   
  مركز بحوث الهندسة الزراعية-الدقى   
The experimental work was carried out through agricultural summer season of 2014 at the experimental farm of Gemmiza Research Station, Gharbiya governorate to minimize energy and costs in weeding and fertilizing processes for fiber crops (Kenaf and Roselle) in small farms. The manufactured multipurpose unit performance was studied as a function of change in machine forward speed (2.2, 2.8, 3.4 and 4 Km/h) fertilizing rates (30,45 and 60 Kg.N.fed-1),and constant soil moisture content was 20%(d.b) in average. Performance of the manufactured machine was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, power and energy requirements, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency, and operational costs as machine measurements. The experiment results revealed that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%. The experiment results revealed that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%. Key words: fertilization, fiber crops, minimize energy, small farms weeding      

The impact drills rubber elastic in the development of some of the defensive skills for junior basketball players   
  Ahmed Salama Saber, Hadeer Ali Almtahir, Hassan Ali Fakhry   
  SE Collective games and racket sports in Physical Education Faculty - Tanta University   
The research aims to identify the impact of rubber elastic training on the physical and skills level of junior basketball players. The experimental method is used in experimental design for one trial set by using pre, inter-dimensional and post measurements. The research sample was selected purposively from Tanta Sports Club junior team less than 14 years who enrolled in Egyptian Federation of basketball records for the sports season 2015/2016. The sample included 15 juniors where were divided into 10 juniors research experimental group and 5 juniors for the survey. The most important results were: rubber elastic trainings had a positive impact on physical abilities and the level of performance of defensive skills, the results of the dimensional measurements exceeds intermediate and pre measurements of experimental group under research. The researchers recommend using rubber elastic trainings under research in the training programs to develop defensive skills of junior basketball players under 14 years , and conducting studies on the impact of rubber elastic trainings on some physical , physiological and biomechanical capabilities for different skills and both sexes under 14 years, and combining of rubber elastic trainings from stability ,pulling and movement in line with the technical performance requirements.      

The impact of a training program using some neurological muscle facilities for the development of the digital level of the players' high jump   
  Ahmed Salama Saber, Zainab Faisal Abdullah, Ola Abdel Halim Bakr   
  SE Athletic Training Department in Physical Education Faculty - Tanta University   
The field and track competitions is the backbone of physical education and sports a long time ago, where ancient history suggests that the evolution of the physical movements have relied primarily on improving the fundamentals of the ordinary forms of human movement such as walking and jump and throwing, the nerve facilities is considered the latest methods of development of flexibility beside they are considered the way in which supports and increases the speed of nervous and muscle mechanisms by provoking nervous which interfere with the nature of these receptors, and there is a clear problem emerged in which researchers notes difficulty, in the practical lectures, in skillful performance of high Vosbery jump Flop (dorsal Method) in hovering the crossbar stage, they found a decrease in degrees of flexibility of female students when taking measurements of the components of fitness, which led to level stability and the inability to achieve higher digital levels, the research aims to identify the impact of the training program using some neurological and muscle facilities of sense receptors (slow reversed stability) on the digital level of the players of high jump in Vosbery way. researchers used experimental method for one set by pre and dimensional measurements as experimental design for its suitability to the nature of the research on a sample purposively includes seven students of third year specialization power Games 2015/2016 who were registered in the Egyptian Federation of Athletics (central Delta area), researchers used statistical processors appropriate to the nature of the search.      

The study of the most important physical demands of the players of Modern Pentathlon   
  Ahmed Salama Saber, Sahar Hamid Zidan, Heba Kamal al-Din El-Deeb   
  SE Quadrilateral training Department, Faculty of physical Education, Tanta University   
Modern Pentathlon, one of the oldest Olympic games, is a complex sport consists of 5 games practiced by one player and performed in a single day. " Pentathlon " is shooting gun with 10 meters air pressure , " saber weapon " , swim for a distance of 200 meters , "equestrian" ,jumping dams and "Cross Country". Competition in equestrian performed by a horse unfamiliar with the knight presented by Organizing Committee and must be horses with the same level. A kind of ballot is being held to allocate a horse for each knight and then allow him a third of an hour in which he must have five jumps in preparation stage then jumps on the chair, which consists of 12 dams and 15 leap across a compound two dams then tri-composite dam, and the players are ordered according to score they get. Where there are no apparent pentathlon player in which the swimmer tends to exercise modern pentathlon by virtue of being swimmers but when actual practice, we find a significant difference in practicing activity, prompting the researcher to identify the most important physical requirements of a player of modern pentathlon. The study aimed to identify the most important physical demands of the modern pentathlon players. The sample included 20 players from Tanta Sports Club Pentathlon players. The descriptive survey manner by scanning studies is the best way to solve this problem.      

Analytical study of some defensive and offensive plans and their relationship to the time-out for the Futsal players   
  Hani Said Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Salama Saber, Omar Saad wakook, Ahmed Mohamed Nada   
  SE Athletic Training Department in Physical Education Faculty - Tanta University   
Futsal game witnessed a wide spread and great evolution considerably all over the world recently, this development marked by high skill and tactical players to the level of performance and capabilities superior to apply the skills and defensive and offensive schemes precisely and in high speed. As a result of this evolution, current study the problem fully appeared in not recognizing the defensive and offensive plans in futsal, as well as how to use a time-out during the game to change offensive and defensive plans of the team, which in turn changing the outcome of the game. The study aimed to identify: defensive and offensive plans in futsal, as well as to identify the effect of time-out to change plans and the result of the game. The researchers used the descriptive survey manner and correlation studies as the best way to solve the problem found. The research community consists of fifth Group at the Futsal World Cup Championship Thailand 2012 which includes (Egypt - Kuwait - Serbia - Czech) and sample of the research is the Futsal Egyptian team. The researchers found the following results: - - The presence of a large group of offensive and defensive plans in futsal. - The team uses many different offensive and defensive schemes during the game. - The effect of time-out to change plans during the game. - The effect of time-out to change the score and result.      

Comparative study about the types of the daily biological rhythm for some of the physiological and physical variables for Player of Basketball and Volleyball   
  Atef Maher Shehab ElDin, Mohamed Abu Zaid Zarad, Ahmed Salama Saber   
  SE Collective games and racket sports in Physical Education Faculty - Tanta University   
The biological rhythm is one of the physiological subjects that scientists, experts, and specialists make use in organizing their educational and training work, and investing effort and time to achieve advanced results in education and performance, as the biological rhythm is the science that teach the distinguished biological cycles for the nature of all living being. The present research aims at identifying the types of daily biological rhythm for basketball and volleyball players, and recognizing the differences between the types of daily biological rhythm for some of the physiological and physical variables for basketball and volleyball players. The researchers used the descriptive methodology depending on the comparative study, and this study was applied on (10) basketball players under the age of 16 years, and those players are already registered in the Egyptian basketball federation, and (10) volleyball players under the age of 17 years, among the registered players in the Egyptian volleyball federation, and this was done during the training season of 2015 - 2016 in Tanta Sporting club. The researchers used (OSTBIRING) Scale to identify the type of daily biological rhythm for players and measuring physiological variables (pulse rate - blood pressure - temperature) and the physical variables (strength featured with speed - speed - agility) for the researched sample. The study results reflected that there is positive effect for the daily biological rhythm on all of the physiological and physical variables for the research for the basketball and volleyball players, and this was based upon the timing.      

Comparative study of the personal characteristics for the junior players for some individual sports   
  Ahmed Salama, Raghda Mohamed Essmat, Zainab Gamal Bisheir   
  SE Collective games and racket sports in Physical Education Faculty - Tanta University   
The swordplay and Gymnastics sports are of the individual sports that aim at achieving the main duties for the sport training, and help junior players achieving the highest possible performance through developing the physical, skill, tactical, functional, psychological, and mental needs, in addition, the psychological needs are one of the most important needs that participate in achieving the high sport performances, and also, have great benefits for building the player's abilities, and develop his individual capabilities, and also fixing and enhancing them in the same time, which identifies his way to act in the different playing situations face him. But as some trainers lacks the ability to take care of this important aspect, some researchers tended to carry out this study in order to make comparison between the personal characteristics for the individual sports players (Swordplay and Gymnastics). This study aims to identify the personal characteristics, and comparing them for the junior players in some individual sports (swordplay and gymnastics). The researchers used the descriptive methodology. The study results lead to the fact that the swordplay and gymnastics players are having some personal characteristics that are high, low, or of the middle level, and also cleared that there are differences between the players of these two individual sports comparing other sports, especially in the personal features. The researchers also assured the importance of taking care of preparing the psychological programs for the players, and enhancing their personal characteristics that help them to take the correct action in different situations.      

  *Ahmad Mohamed Arabi and ** Hisham Mohamed Kazem   
  *Researcher at Second Year (Ph.D), ** Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Physical Education- Tanta University, Egypt.   
The pursuit of high sports levels, promotion of sports achievement and break of sport activities records depend basically on the good planning for training and a sport which requires special abilities of its players. These abilities are defensive and offensive actions performed realistically, that is, Kumite, or delusively, which is called Kata. The swimming is regarded as the most beneficial sport to the body because it strengthens all organs of body as it develops the muscles and makes them flexible because all muscles work together and therefore it increases the strength of muscles. It develops will, bravery, patience and stability and it enhances the self-reliance. This study aims at identifying the impact of training program inside the aqueous medium using the snorkel (breathing tube) upon the performance level of some Kumite skills in Karate and the use of experimental method. The sample was divided into a control group (10 players) and an experimental group (10 players) from Sporting Castle club in Gharbia Governorate (under 18). The physical and skill tests were made for karate players and the period of training program was six weeks. From the statistical processing, the researchers found that there are statistical differences between the control and experimental groups in favor of experimental group and that there are differences between the Before and After measurements in favor of the After measurements. This indicates how the training program is effective to the enhancement of skill performance level for the Kumite players.      

  Prof. Ahmed Salama Saber effect, Israa Abdel Aal Alsokry, Heba Samir sokkar   
  Collective Games and Racket Sports in Physical Education Faculty - Tanta University, Sportive specialist in Gharbiya sports and youth directorate   
The track and field competitions are one of the basic and distinctive sports because of diverse skills and abilities they involve and a base of the dramatic progress in the level of digital achievement of various competitions (running, jumping and throwing). Ballistic exercises are considered the latest muscle power development methods and describing the movements that characterized by the increased speed to maximum over the extrusion and gravity of the tool in a vacuum and can be used to overcome the lack of speed resulted from traditional training with weights in addition to the necessity of developing the muscles working force including Alblu mtry training , weightlifting, jumping and throwing, the research aims to identify the impact of the training program using ballistic resistance to the development of muscle power and researchers used appropriate statistical processors which fit for the nature of search and results Search results declare that the proposed ballistic exercises have positively influenced the development of muscle power and digital level of high jump competitors.      

الفن التشكيلى ودوره فى التخلص الآمن من المخلفات البيئية الصلبة   
  د/عبدالواحد عطيه عبدالواحد   
  AP وكيل كلية التربية النوعية جامعة طنطا   
تلعب الخامة دوراَ رئيسياَ وهاماَ فى تحقيق أهداف التربية الفنية بصفة عامة ,وأهداف التشكيل النحتى بصفة خاصة . "فالخامة ذات دور أساسى وفعال فى بناء العمل النحتى, وقد أشار الفنانون – هنرى مور –H.Moore ,بربارا هيبورث– B.Hepworth ,ناعوم جابو–N.Gabo,وفلاسفة علم الجمال – سانتيانا–G.Santyann,جون ديوى- J.Dewey,هربرت ريد- H.Red,إلى أهمية دور الخامة فى بناء الشكل المجسم , وأوضحوا أن القيم الجمالية للخامة وتفاعلها مع هيئة الشكل المجسم ليست مظهراَ من مظاهر تجسيم الواقع المرأى أو فكرة النحات وكذلك بناء الأشكال التى يتمثل بها الموضوع والتعبير, فالشكل المجسم تنظيم يحمل فكرة يجسدها النحات بالخامة, واضعاَ كل جوانبها التشكيلية والتعبيرية فى اعتباره عند اختياره للخامة . وتعتبر قضايا التلوث البيئى والمخلفات البيئية من المشكلات التى تهدد البيئة المصرية ، ومعالجة تلك المشكلة يعتبر تحدى لجميع القطاعات المختلفة ، حيث يجب البحث عن طرق آمنة للتخلص من تلك المخلفات ، والفن التشكيلى قد قدم حلول لمعالجة تلك المشكلة من خلال استخدامها كخامات بديلة فى العمل الفنى بصفة عامة والعمل النحت بصفة خاصة ، بل أصبح لها دوراً فى ظهور اتجاهات فنية مرتبطة بتلك النوع من المخلفات مثل ( الدادائية – فن التجميع ). وفى هذا البحث يقوم الباحث بعرض موجز لأهم الأعمال التى تناولت المخلفات البيئية فى الأعمال النحتية عامياً ومحلياً ، مع القيام ببعض التجارب للتخلص من قش الأرز والإستفادة منه فى عمل بلاطات تكسية أوفواصل داخلية بأشكال جمالية . لذا تحددت مشكلة البحث فى السؤال التالى : - الى أى مدى يمكن التوصل الى حلول مناسبة للتخلص الآمن من المخلفات الصلبة عن طريق الفن التشكيلى.      

العلاقة بين التعليم والثقافة وادراك مفردات اللغه الجمالية للبيئة المعمارية المصرية   
  ايمان علي رشدي الهواري   
  AP قسم الزخرفة - كلية الفنون التطبيقية - جامعة حلوان   
التعليم هو تزويد الفرد بمجموعة أفكار نضعها في رأسه لتكون له بمثابة الابصار و التربية هى تزويد من تربيه بعادات يتحرك بها الى حيث تهديه أفكاره التى حصلها والثقافة تبلور للإنسان طابع وهوية وتجعله منتمياً لمحيطه ومجتمعه ، ومن المفترض ان تهذّب سلوكه وتؤهله اجتماعياً بينما الحضارة تعدّه للانخراط في أداء دوره وتوفر له احتياجاته و السؤال الذى يطرح نفسه هو :هل ازداد المجتمع المصرى قوة و ارتفاعا في مضمار الحضارة التى هى مقياس يقاس به مدى تقدم الشعوب؟؟ من المفارقات العجيبة التى تستوقف الانظار و التى يجب أن تؤخذ بالجدية التى تستحقها هى زيادة عدد المتعلمين زيادة عددية و مع ذلك جمود المجتمع في جملته حضاريا و ثقافيا و فنيا و جماليا معا ، إن لم يكن أضعف مما كان .. كيف يمكن لكائن حى أن تقوي مفردات أعضائه عضوا عضوا ثم يظل في مجموعه على ضعفه الذى كان عليه من مائة عام ؟ ولذلك يمكن القول أننا نكبر حجما و لكننا لا نتطور وتكمن مشكلة البحث الرئيسة في غياب وتخبط السياسات التعليمية السليمة التى يمكن ان تملأ رؤوس النشء بأفكار حية وقيم التى يمكن ترجمتها و تحويلها إلى بناء حضارى متعدد الطوابق و الأركان والتى يمكن من خلالها تذوق لغة وجمال البيئة المعمارية المصرية ، تحقيقا لمعادلة مبدأ اخلاقى +ذوق جمالى = اتجاه حضارة ويهدف البحث الي التوصيف الدقيق للمشكلات المركبة التى كانت سببا فى عزل المتعلمين والمثقفين عن ادراك وتذوق الجمال فى المجتمع والبيئة المصريةويسعي للاجابة على تساؤل كيف يمكن ان نعيد للإنسان المصري الوعي والإدراك الجمالي المفقود ؟      

جماليات المونوكروم ( تنظير لمعرض شخصي )   
  مي علي محمد ندا   
  AP مدرس بقسم الإعلان - كلية الفنون التطبيقية - جامعة حلوان   
الملخص باللغة الإنجليزية : When talking about Aesthetics the first thing that comes to our minds is the set of aesthetics related to line and mass, light and shade, balance and instability … etc, but the most influential part of it is that related to color including color range, hue, saturation, harmony, contrast, brightness … etc, that part has always been spotted during many ages since the rise of Modern Art in Europe. Color has always taken more interest than other aesthetics, but the later one has captured my mind as an artist apart from those aesthetics related to color, I was fascinated personally in light and shade as a way of expression, and that's what I tried to apply in my personal exhibition, following the steps of great masters such as "Rembrandt Van Reign" Who didn't actually revoke color but reduced it to its minimum existence on behalf of light and shade, using those to intense expression to its maximum degree .      

الرسوم ثلاثية الأبعاد كعناصر اعلانية وجمالية للبيئة   
  مي علي محمد ندا   
  AP مدرس بقسم الإعلان - كلية الفنون التطبيقية - جامعة حلوان   
مشكلة البحث: تتلخص مشكلة البحث في التساؤل الآتي: كيف يمكن مقاومة حالة القبح والعشوائية في بعض الميادين بفراغات تخيلية جديدة من خلال توظيف الرسوم ثلاثية الأبعاد في اعلانات الطرق وجداريات المباني ؟ وما هي القيمة الجمالية المضافة المتوقع الحصول عليها من خلال هذا التطبيق ؟ وأثر ذلك على فعالية عملية الاتصال الاعلاني ؟ فروض البحث: يفترض البحث أن : تتفوق رسوم البعد الثالث على الرسوم العادية في التأكيد على دور العمق والخيال ، وهو ما يمكن توظيفه ايجابياً لصالح اعلانات الطرق وجداريات المباني. تقوم فلسفة رسوم البعد الثالث على مبدأ الهدم واعدة البناء نظرياً ، حيث تستبدل الكتلة غير الجمالية بفراغ جمالي وعمق خيالي ، وهو ما يمكن توظيفه لزيادة فعالية عملية الاتصال الاعلاني. التوظيف الناجح لرسوم البعد الثالث في الاعلان الخارجي ليس هدفاً بعيد المنال أسوةً بتجارب ناجحة في الخارج ، إلا أنه يتطلب تخطيطاً استراتيجياً يبدأ من ميادين بعينها ثم التوسع بعد ذلك في حال نجاح التطبيق. ملخص البحث باللغة الانجليزية: 3D illustrations are considered as a rather new field in decorating streets and buildings in the world, those illustrations have their own aesthetics mainly relying on illusional depth and imagery. There are otherwise some successful applications of 3D illustrations in advertisements especially outdoors, that way they can serve as advertising media as well as environmental aesthetics. This paper discusses how to employ 3D illustrations in outdoor advertisements in order to emphasise imagination and illusion which can lead to both enhancing the environment and enhancing the communication process of advertising design.      

تجربة عملية لتشكيل بلاطات الفسيفساء الخزفية كحل مقترح لبعض مشاكل الانتاج   
  عبد الحميد عامر عبد العزيز   
  AP قسم الخزف - كلية الفنون التطبيقية - جامعة حلوان   
Ceramic Mosaic is considered as a highly sophisticated technique for producing artistic ceramic walls that have distinguished aesthetic values; it is also known by the difficulty in production and the lack of the super trained workhands, which is translated directly into large costs and high prices. The machinery interference in this technique has brought some good and some bad influences on the profession, the bright side shows a great deal of easiness and speed in production and there were no more need for the super trained workhands, but on the other side the tiles became less artistic and much more artificial, the costs became less and so did the prices , the aesthetic values were minimised into its lower levels. This paper proposes a technique that could be used to overcome the disadvantages of both handmade and machinery production, by using some small tools to cut the clay into little tiled controlled by the ceramic artist prior to glazing and burning, thus it becomes much easier for the ceramic artist to design his own tiles.      

Common house spider in Tanta city (Egypt) with special reference to the antifungal effect of its web on healing human wounds and burns   
  1Zoology Department, 2Botany Deprartement, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt   
Description of the common house spider at Tanta city (Egypt) was done. It was estimated that this spider belong to family Pholcidae. This is the first record of this family in the investigated locality. In addition, the habitat and biology were briefly described. A total of 60 cotton swabs were collected from human wounds and burns. Isolation and identification of causal fungi were done. In order to determine antifungal properties of spider silk, the webs were extracted using different solvents such as ethanol, acetone, and water. These extracts were screened for antifungal activities using disc diffusion assay. The obtained results indicated that fungal growth was positive for 50 (90%) cases of 60 swabs taken from the human burn wounds. The causative agent of these cases were: Aspergillus niger (24%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), Rhizopus stolonifer (6%). Fusarium oxysporum (6%), Candidaalbicans (24%), Penicilliumsp. (12%), Tricodermasp., (6%) and Rhodotorulasp (10%). In screening, acetone solvent was shown the best antifungal activity compare to other solvents. Thus, this study conclude that acetone extract of spider webs could be a potential source of new antifungal agents for wounds treatment. Key words: Wounds, Burns, Fungal infections, Spider web.Common house spider in Tanta city (Egypt) with special reference to the antifungal effect of its web on healing human wounds and burns      

Characterization and electrical properties of copper phthalocyanines doped into PVP/PEO blend   
  H.M. Ragab, F. Ahmad, Sh.N. Radwan   
  Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo, 11754, Egypt   
In this work, composite films of Polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Polyethylene oxide (PVP/PEO) blend doped with 1, 4 and 12 wt% of copper Phthalocyanines (CuPc) were prepared by casting method. The films were investigated using different and suitable techniques. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) studies revealed average crystallite size and X-ray intensity decrease at 1 CuPc %; this implies to an increase on the degree of amorphousity, then increase at CuPc >1 %. The change in both the intensity and position of some absorption peaks of the blend with CuPc content were observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggest the complexation of polymer blend. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that the optical band gap decreases as well as band tail width increases with increasing CuPc concentration. It may be reflect the role of CuPc in modifying the electronic structure of the polymeric matrix. The charge carrier concentration is responsible for conductivity improvement in electrolytes rather than the mobility.      


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