Poisons and pharmaceutical products and environment             No Of Abstract is : 7  
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Effects of rice straw burning products on guinea pig lungs   
  Nageh, A. El-Mahdy¹, ThannaaA El-masry¹, Magdaa Elsayad¹, Shimaa, M. Elkhyat¹*, Sally, E. Abu Risha¹ and Karima, I. El-Desouky²   
  ¹Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. ²Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.    
This study aims to investigate rice open field burning and their deleterious effects which has become an obvious problem in Egypt, which apparently affects the Egyptians´ lungs and increased hospital admission for pulmonary complaints. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate this phenomenon by using guinea pigs which were subjected to rice straws burning products (RSBP). The effects of RSBP on differential leukocytic count in lung lavages, histopathological examination, malondialdehyde (MDA) content in lung tissues (marker of lipid peroxidation) and nitric oxide (NO) content in lung tissues were studied. Results of this study demonstrated that RSBP induced pulmonary emphysematous lesions are progressive with subsequent smoke exposures together with the sensitization of the lung in the present model. Changes in the count of macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of guinea pigs lungs compared to normal lavages. RSBP exposure has a potent potential capacity for being a source of reactive oxygen species and possibly oxidizing species which can lead to decrease nitric oxide content in lung tissue.      

(التســـــمم المنزلي (الوقاية والإسعافات الأولية   
  أ.د عبد المعطى كباش   
  كلية طب طنطا - قسم الطب الشرعى والسموم    
من الشائع تسمم عدد كبير من الناس يومياً أطفالاً وكباراً ويحدث ذلك عرضاً أو عمداً ويحدث التسمم العرضي لوجود كثير من المواد المسببة للتسمم في المنازل والمصانع والبيئة وأحيانا يحدث التسمم من الأدوية نتيجة الخطأ أو نتيجة لجرعة زائدة عن المطلوب أو تناول الأطفال للدواء اعتقادا انه حلوى ومن المعروف أن أكثر فرائس التسمم هم من الأطفال. هناك أعشاب ونباتات قاتلة مثل الدفلة الحمراء والصفراء وبذور الخروع وبذور حب الملوك . أما الحيوانات السامة فهي كثيرة ويحدث التسمم بهذه الحيوانات عن طريق النهش أو اللسع أو اللدغ ومن الأمثلة على ذلك الأفاعي والعقارب والعناكب وتختلف أعراض التسمم باختلاف نوع السم الذي دخل إلى الجسم وباختلاف طول الوقت أو الزمن الذي مضى على حدوث تناوله. يجب الإسراع في علاج المتسمم وإسعافه بأسرع وقت والاتصال أو إرسال من يستدعي الطبيب فكل دقيقة تمضي على المتسمم إنما تسمح للسم من السريان في جسمه ودمه. ولان الوقاية خير من العلاج فيجب زيادة الوعي وإتباع الإرشادات للوقاية من التسمم .      

Unintentional Household Poisoning in Children   
  Prof. Abdelmoty Kabbash   
  Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Department ,Faculty of Medicine ,Tanta University    
In spite of the decline in child fatal poisonings that has been achieved in the developed countries and many other over the last few years, accidental poisoning in children remains an important public health problem worldwide. It is important to provide background , outlines of the problem and specific direction on the identification and management of substantial poisoning. Substances most frequently ingested by children in the developed world include household chemicals, medication, and plants. Although the great majority of such poisonings have no or limited clinical effects, it puts substantial burden on health care systems. Notably , a small number of poisons can kill after ingestion of very little amount. Accidental poisoning in developing countries can be much more grave, following ingestion of caustic agents, herbal remedies, insecticides or herbicides. Management of symptomatic children include supportive care, if available give antidotes, and the removal of the offending poison from the body.      

Branched-chain amino acids suppress oxidative stress and inflammation in CCl4 – induced liver fibrosis rat model   
  Naglaa F. Khedr & Eman G. Khedr   
  Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt    
Background: The alterations and low levels of circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine, are associated with liver diseases. The study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of BCAAs on CCl4-induced fibrosis and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects in rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into three groups. Control group (n=10), CCl4 group (n=10); rats were injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg of 0.5:1 v/v injected i.p. twice weekly for 12 weeks). CCl4+BCAAs (n=10); rats were injected with similar doses of CCl4 and supplemented with a mixture of 600 mg/kg BCAAs (2: 1: 1.2 Leucine: Isoleucine: Valine) by oral gavage, three times/week for 12 weeks. Fibrosis was assessed by measuring liver biochemical makers included total bilirubin, total protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hydroxyproline content. Liver sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination and α-smooth muscle actin was detected immunohistochemically. Insulin level, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified. TGF-β1 gene expression was detected by qRT-PCR and quantified in serum. Results: CCl4 resulted in elevation of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, TGF-β1 and liver hydroxyproline (P<0.001), whereas plasma total protein, GPx and SOD activities were reduced (P<0.05). BCAAs suppress liver fibrosis indices and TGF-β1expression in hepatocytes following CCl4 injections (P<0.001). BCAAs enhanced liver antioxidant enzyme activities (P<0.001) and apparently ameliorated histopathological changes in rat liver. Conclusion: These findings suggested that BCAAs may have a protective role against liver fibrosis via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.      

Biological Hazards   
  Mrs. Eman Mohammed Khafagy   
  Outpatient Clinic Nursing, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt    
Biological agents are living things or products of living things that can cause disease in human. Biological agents include viruses, bacteria, Fungi, parasites, worms and some plants. There are three major of routes of entry for these micro-organisms into our body Through the respiratory system, transmission through contact with body fluids of the infected or contact with contaminated objects. The harmful effects posed to Human health by these biological hazards are mainly of three types - infections, allergy and poisoning. Biological hazards can be encountered anywhere in the environment as hospital, home, school and hotel. Biological hazards in the workplace may result in a significant amount of Occupationally associated disease as in health care sitting although the biological hazards are not always recognized in some work setting. The first step in preventing incident injuries or illness in the workplace Is identification of all the hazards that could cause Injury or illness? In hospital the health care workers are responsible for conducting of biological hazards. Controlling of biological hazards is Include Administrative Control, Engineering Control, Personal Protective Equipment Standard precaution of infection prevention and control & What do you need to do as a health care Worker? Wash your hands and face with soap and water before eating and Smoking and after finishing work. Wear personal protective equipment, you need to be aware of hazards, Participate in training, Remove work clothes before eating and before leaving work. Keep work clothes away from other laundry and wash them separately. Safe sharps devices &safe work practices.      

  Gomah E. Nenaaha,* Alyaa A. Gazzya and Basma A. Al Assiutyb   
  aZoology Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafr El sheikh, Egypt bZoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt    
There are negative impacts on the environment and human health derived from the application of chemical fungicides in traditional agricultural production systems for control of crop diseases. These consequences created an increasing demand for developing environmentally safe agrochemicals to promote sustainable and healthy food production. The use of plant secondary metabolites with antifungal properties is one of these approaches. In the current study, the total harmala alkaloids (THAs), the β-carboline alkaloids harmane, harmine, harmaline, harmalol and the two quinazolines, peganine (vasicine) and vasicinone were isolated from Peganum harmala. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and 2D 1H-1H COSY). Using mycelial growth inhibitory technique, harmala alkaloids exhibited considerable fungicidal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum acutatum. THAs was the most potent antifungal fraction against the four test fungi with EC50 values of 16.5, 23.3, 31.8 and 37.5 µg/ml against C. acutatum, F. oxysporum, B. cinerea and A. alternate, respectively. Harmine and harmaline showed moderate activities, while harmalol and the two quinazolines showed weak activities. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared using harmala alkaloids showed improved fungitoxic activity, where EC50 values of THAs ranged between 9.3 and 17.4 µg/ml. The antifungal activity of alkaloids was comparable to a reference fungicide, carbendazim Many of the tested alkaloids were non-phytotoxic and showed no or low toxicity against experimental animals. The study recommends the potential of using harmala alkaloids, especially at their nanoscale, as biorational alternatives to conventional fungicides after the required toxicological assessments.      

Evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease potential in cholinesterase inhibitors insecticides exposed females   
  Eman I. Draz 1, Azza M. Hassan2, Haidy S. Khalil3, Mohamed A. Elomary4   
  Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology1, Bacteriology2, 3, Gynecology and Obstetrics4 Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University    
Introduction: Cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides, mainly organophosphates and carbamates, are very common to be used in Egypt. Chronic male and female exposure in agricultural workers is expected. Unfortunately, most of workers in agriculture don’t follow the procedures of protection from insecticides exposure on handling. Unnoticed exposure to insecticides could occur due to environmental pollution. Objective: The work aimed to relate exposure to cholinesterase pesticides to the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Subjects and methods: The study was conducted on seventy women aged between 19 and 47 year, who were visiting the Outpatient Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Tanta university hospital during 2015 and the first 3 months of 2016. They were clinically suspected to complain from PID based on patients’ history and clinical findings. Blood samples were collected from each patient for measurement of red blood cells cholinesterase activity and cervical swaps were obtained for microbiological examination. Results: According to patients’ history 16 patients were exposed to cholinesterase inhibitors insecticides while 54 patients were non-exposed. Cholinesterase activities were significantly depressed in exposed females (6.36±0.8)µ moles/min/ ml red cells when compared with non-exposed (7.5±1.2) µ moles/min/ ml red cells (P=0.0009). Laboratory confirmed cervical infection was detected in 37 (52.6%) of cases with significant gram-negative organisms isolation (59.5%, P<0.00001) and significant decrease in the mean enzyme activity value in culture positive cases (6.4±0.8, P<0.0001). Patients with enzyme activity ≤7µ moles/min/ ml red cells were more susceptible to infection. Conclusion: Exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors pesticides could increase the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease.      


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