New and renewable energy             No Of Abstract is : 11  
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  Prof. Aly M. ElZahaby   
  Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University   
Nowadays the problem of environment conservation and protection from all kinds of pollution becomes one of the most interesting issues for researchers and scientists. During the last 10 years, the awareness of importance of ecology has increased which resulting in issuing and activating the anti-pollution laws. The paper aims to clarify the importance of waste to energy concept as a correct management system for treatment of MSW. Such technologies are based on eco-technological concept, where the waste to energy represents an optimal, clean, safe and feasible solution for the problems of waste generation, accumulation and treatment. Noting that after receiving the MSW and sorting the recyclable materials, or organic materials are treated by waste to energy concept. The paper shows shortly the available methods of waste disposal including: composting, landfilling and waste to energy. Then the paper considers and explains the waste to energy concepts as incineration, gasification and pyrolysis showing their environmental effects, principal of operations, used equipment and technical processes description. Also the paper clarifies the major differences between incineration which means direct burning of organic materials as an old/traditional method with law energy conversion efficiency and significant environmental risk together with the other method as gasification and pyrolysis. However, gasification and pyrolysis are the cutting edge technology giving clean syngas and pyrolytic oil used as fuel for power generation. Finally, the paper includes technical and economical evaluation of the proposed technologies based on treatment 700 Ton/day MSW including summary of feasibility studies, where important results are concluded.      

  Fouda,T.Z., M Drwesh and N,Gremida   
  المعهد العالى للتفنيات الزراعية طربلس ليبيا   
Solar water heaters use the solar energy from the sun to generate heat which can then be used to heat water. The evacuated tube and heat pipe technology provides very efficient and reliable solar thermal production in an easy to install, low maintenance design. The experimental work was carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta, University, Egypt, which located at latitude and longitude angle of 30.49°N and 30.59°E, respectively, during winter and summer seasons 2015. The experiments were designed to evaluate the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar water collector ETC with 20 evacuated tubes, tank capacity 150 liters and surface area of 1.5 m2. The thermal efficiency for evacuated tube solar collector depends on the solar radiation, ambient temperature from sunrise to sunset. The results obtained showed the outlet water temperatures were 63 and 85.7°C during winter and summer seasons, respectively. Also the temperature difference between outlets water temperature and ambient temperature were 46.2 and 50.1°C. and the temperature differences between outlet water temperature and inlet water temperature from sunrise to sunset were 17.09 and 17.30°C. while the overall efficiency values were 77.20 and 79.90%. The researches carried out for the elaboration of the present paper were financed by Egyptian program support from Tanta University Code: TU 04-1304 using solar energy to produce biogas from animal wastes and agricultural contract no. 45/2012.      

  M. DARWESH, and H. KASSEM   
  Tanta university, Faculty of agriculture, Egypt,   
In Egypt, the annual average of global solar radiation is 5.4-7.1 kW.h/m2/day, while the annual average solar radiation on full tracking system is 7.5 -10.5 kW.h/m2/day. Biogas technology is a biological process which converts organic materials such as crop and animal residues wastes by an anaerobic fermentation into useful energy. Biogas technology not supplies energy (biogas) and organic fertilizer from renewable waste materials, but also alleviates the problem of waste disposal and pollution control. Biogas system has many advantages. This research work was carried out in the biogas laboratory of the Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University at Jan. 2015. The main objectives of this research work were to study the possibility of using the stored energy from a solar panel with a heat exchanger to heat the cattle dung solution for a biogas production. Also to investigate the effect of booth the temperature and the hydraulic retention time on the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation. The obtained results show that the highest biogas production was observed in horizontal digester type 12.95 L/day at mixing time of 15 minutes each four hours. and heating at 40 oC. Meanwhile the lowest was 2.39 L/day in vertical digester type in case mixing time 5min./hr. and heating at 30 oC. the total biogas productivity was increased by 0.416 from 1.126 (m3 gas/m3 manure) in case mixing time of 15 min. /4hr. The biogas productivity was changed by digester type from vertical and horizontal digester.      

An Effective Technique of Power Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Pipeline System Using Turbine Generator   
  Usman, B. and Adamu, S.S.   
  Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.   
Pipelines are an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly means of fluid transportation, usually deployed for the transportation of petroleum products and utility, like water and gas, and mostly located in remote areas, thus occasionally subjected to third party damage. This damage if goes unreported can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, and disruption of the product supply. The ability to inexpensively and efficiently monitor and assess pipeline integrity and status would provide improved means for service-life prediction and defect detection to ensure operational reliability. For any type of sensor required for monitoring, one invariably needs a power source. Harvesting energy from the environment or from a surrounding system and converting it to available power supply for such sensors is presented in this paper using Electromagnetic method to scavenge power from kinetic energy of fluid flow through pipeline system. The design employed the use of a small turbine of 8.6cm directly attached to a brushless DC generator. The brushless DC machine is connected to an AC to DC rectifier circuit using MOSFET switches, with a common pulse width. The proposed system is modeled and simulated using Mat Lab/Simulink software. Simulation results analysis using maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control are investigated and analyzed. The result shows that the proposed system can generate about 5Watts of power, enough to be use for a large sensor system within the pipeline.      

Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs)   
  Maii Atef Shams Eldeen   
  Medical Microbilogy and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.   
Great issues facing scientists today are FUEL CRISIS,GLOBAL WARMING and BIO WASTE DISPOSAL The answer to all these problems may be provided by our planet's smallest creatures : BACTERIA. Microbial Fuel Cells are bioelectrical devices that uses the natural metabolism of microbes to produce electrical power directly from organic material. many types of commonly present bacteria can be used in those fuel generating cells. they have applications in many fields. There are many ways by which MFC can improve our world. Microbial Fuel Cells can be used in Power generation, waste water treatment, Sewage treatment, Biosensor and cleansing of polluted water areas, The collection and retrieval of undersea data, Desalination of water, bio-recovery of metals and ions, Education & Research, Medical uses and even home uses. Using microbial fuel cells will be the solution to many problems facing the universe. they will give us the opportunity to produce clean, renewable and non-noisy energy and at the same time getting red of waste in a beneficial way.      

Evaluation of Different Methods of Direct Use of Solar Energy "Solar Chimney" for Power Generation   
  H. A. Nasef   
  Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University.   
In this research, many ways of solar energy generation power are reviewed. Some of them directly produce electricity such as photo voltaic cells and others indirectly such as thermal solar plants with thier two types ; concentrated and unconcentrated plants. A comparison is being done for these solar power generation plants from different type of views. Solar chimney power plant prototype is designed, constructed and tested on May 2015 in the campus of Tanta University in Tanta city, Egypt with chimney of 24 m height and solar collector of 1600 m2 area. Temperature distributions inside the system and air flow velocity inside the chimney are measured and analyzed. Air flow velocity inside the chimney increases with increasing temperature difference between air at chimney entrance and ambient which reaches to a mean value of 5 m/s in the period between 8:00 AM and 4:00 PM at mean temperature difference of 23.5oC and mean solar radiation 812 W/m2 .      

Saline Water Desalination Using a Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Assisted with Solar Energy   
  A. R. Abd Elbarr   
  Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University.   
Due to the scarcity of potable water in many places in our world and high cost of energy used in saline water desalination, researchers turned to maximize the utilization of solar energy as a clean and renewable energy source used in water desalination. The purpose of the present research is to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation for salt water desalination using tubular direct contact membrane distillation assisted with solar energy. The effect of operating parameters on the unit performance was studied. These parameters include feed water inlet temperature, feed water flow rate, salt concentration and cooling water temperature. System thermal efficiency and gain output ratio (GOR) are also evaluated. The investigated range was, 70oC for inlet feed water temperature, from 15 to 20 L/min for feed water flow rate, from 0 to 40 g Nacl/L water for feed water salt concentration, from 20 to 56 °C for the inlet cooling water temperature, and from 15 to 20 L/min for cooling water flow rate. Maximum productivity, daily efficiency, and Gain output ratio (GOR) of the system reach 40.587 kg/day, 60.06%, and 0.624 respectively.      

Biogas Production from Chicken manure   
  A. M. ElZahaby, M.I.El-Hadary   
  Faculty of Engineering,Mechanical Power Department   
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials and recycled waste and is environmentally friendly and CO2 neutral. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas comprises primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in anaerobic digesters where it is typically used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel. Biogas is a renewable fuel so it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane.      

Determination of Collectible Energy and Evaluation of a Flat plate Solar Collector for Vegetable drying   
  Attanda M.L., M.S. Abubakar and M.S. Karaye   
  Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.   
A design of a flat plate solar collector sizing based on hourly irradiance data for a Kano location at a tilted angle of 28 was developed for the purpose of drying vegetable. The collector surface area estimation based on the collector useful energy gain and factors such as specific capacity, heat of vaporization and initial and required final moisture contents of tomatoes vegetable as the testing product was demonstrated. The hourly performance of the flat plate collector output was evaluated for the tested product for consecutive 2 days on 12 hourly intervals with consideration of the collector and location dependent parameters such as incident solar radiation, average ambient air temperature and sunshine hours. The collectible energy differential between the computational design values of 9675.82 kJ and the obtainable energy in the collector of 9523.5 kJ in the first day and 9525.3 kJ of the second day of the experiments respectively is less than 1%. This shows that the collectible energy of the developed collector is circa up to the required amount of energy needed to adequately evaporate available moisture of the vegetable to be dried.      

  Abubakar, M.S1, Bello, S.A2 and Attanda, M.L1   
  1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria 2Food Crop Production Technology Transfer Station, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dan-Hassan, Kano-Nigeria   
Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. An anaerobic biogas digester was developed for typa grass to be the main raw material but in this study it was tested using cow dung and poultry droppings. The mix ratios in the two experiments of 100 per cent cow dung and 100 per cent poultry droppings, biogas samples collected and analyzed were able to achieve methane concentration of 44.71% and 70.79% respectively, with an average concentration of 57.75% methane content. The result shown that the biogas digester developed could be multi-purpose using cow dung or poultry droppings slurry as raw materials, even though the digester was originally developed for co-digestion of typha grass and cow dung slurry. The digested effluent in both cases have little odour and an increased concentration of dissolved nutrients, which provides the dry land farmers with an improved organic fertilizer. The mix ratios in the two experiments of 100 per cent cow dung and 100 per cent poultry droppings, biogas samples collected and analyzed were able to achieve methane concentration of 44.71% and 70.79% respectively, with an average concentration of 57.75% methane content.      

Future of Low Capacity Solar Thermal Desalination Units by Using Thermal Solar Energy in Arab Countries   
  A. E. Kabeel1, Ali Al Magar2   
  1Vice Dean Faculty of Engineering Tanta University Tanta, Egypt, 2Environment Consult, Saudi Arabia   
The drinking water of acceptable quality has become a scarce commodity. According to the report by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an estimated 1.1 billions of people have no access to safe drinking water and more than 5 million die from water borne diseases each year. No Provision is better even for the future. It is estimated that more than 2.7 billions of people will face severe water shortages by the year 2025. In a number of Arab countries (with vast desert or semi-desert areas), the water reserves per capita, already very limited The standard high capacity desalination methods such as multi-stage flash evaporation and multi-effect evaporation, vapor compression and reverse osmosis are reliable in the range of some 100-500,000 m3/d fresh water production. However, the wide-scale implementation of these technologies faces numerous technological, economic and policy barriers and they are not used in decentralized regions with a poor infrastructure due to their permanent need for qualified maintenance and electricity supply. In this paper an attempt has been made to present a review, in brief, low capacity desalination units for the use in rural areas derived from salty water (sea water and/or brackish water), the work of the highlights that have been achieved during the recent years worldwide and the state-of-the-art for most important efforts in technological advancement. These units powered by solar energy with a fresh water output production in the range of 100 l/day to 10 m³/day and proof the autonomous operational concepts.      


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