Environment and Health Risks             No Of Abstract is : 14  
Coordinator : Prof Omebrahim Ali Almelegy
Faculty : Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University
Email : tuef.EnvHRisk@unv.tanta.edu.eg
Mobile : 01004108462
  Humans are constantly interacting with the environment, and these interactions affect the quality of life, healthy years of life, and health disparities. Therefore, the environment, as it relates to health, is represented in all physical, chemical, biological and external factors surrounding human beings, all behaviors and so on. Prevention and control of diseases, injuries and disabilities related to interactions between humans and their environment should be provided.  
Problematic Internet Use and Psychological Problems (Depression and Loneliness) Among Tanta University Students.   
  Dr .Amal Ibrahim Sabra. .   
  Assistant Professor of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing .Faculty of Nursing .Tanta University    
In the last few years, Problematic Internet Use has become a serious mental health problem, especially among the young people between ten and twenty-six years old. The earliest and recent studies reported link between overuse of the internet by adolescent and young adults and negative effect of psychological wellbeing. Aim of the study :-This study aimed to investigate the extent of Problematic Internet use among Tanta university students and examine the relationships between Problematic Internet Use and depression and loneliness among Tanta university students .Subjects and Method .-Design .The descriptive design was used. Setting :- Different faculties of Tanta University .-Subjects :-The target population of this study consisted of 300 participants who were chosen randomly among Tanta university students .who meet the following inclusion criteria .-Age between 18-24 years and Internet users. Tools: In the collection of data of this study, three tools were used namely:-Internet Addiction test (IAT) , Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and UCLA loneliness scale. Results;-results of the study reported that about one third of studied subjects had problematic internet use and there was significant positive relationship between Problematic Internet Use and depression and loneliness among Tanta university students. Conclusion. : - students who had problematic internet use are more likely to become loneliness and depressed. Recommendation:-The study recommended that: It should be given more attention to educate students about internet usage habits and psychologists must be aware of this newly emerging disorder as an internet addiction      

Effect of Social Skills Training Program on Improving Self –Esteem Among Primary School Age Children   
  NagatElhosseiny Bachelor degree of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing,Tanta University. Rahma Soliman Bahgat:Professor of Pediatric Nursing Faculty of Nursing,Tanta University. Mervat HosnyShalaby:Assistant Professor of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Faculty oF Nursing Tanta University   
Self -esteem and adequate social skills made it easier to function in our society, and it should be the educational systems role toprovide social skills that children may not learn othe rwise.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of social skills training program on improving self-esteem among primary school age children. Design this study follow Quasi experimental research design .Setting The study was conducted at lofty Amin Salma primary school. This school affiliated to Ministry of Education, it present of educational administration in ElsantaElgharbia. Subject stratified randomized sampling of 80 students , at sixth grade and , fifth grade . Three tools were used for data collection: Socio-demographics characteristic and knowledge of primary school age children about social skills training of school age, Social skills Improvement Scale and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Results show an improvement of social skills and self-esteem development after the program implementation and the child became more emotionally and socially health. Conclusion could be draw that primary school age children showed an improvement in their behavior and practices related to social skills and self esteem after the implementation of social skills training program. There was statistical significant difference between social skills and self esteem of studied primary school age children before and after the implementation of social skills training program . Recommendation are suggested that in-service education programs must be designed and implemented to the students and follow up to improve their behavior and social skills .Direct instruction is needed for developing social skills of the students.      

Effect of partner abuse on the quality of life of married women   
  Nahed Ahmed Morsy, professor of psychiatric & mental health nursing Mervet Hosny Shalaby , assistant professor of psychiatric & mental health nursing Shereen Mohamed Abo-elyzeed, assistant professor of psychiatric & mental health nursing. Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University   
Intimate partner abuse (IPA) has long term negative health consequences for survivors, even after the abuse has end. These effects can manifest as poor health status, poor quality of life, and high use of health services. Aims of the study; This study aimed to assess the level, and the type of abuse that the women may experience during their relationship with their husband, the impact of women abuse on their quality of life, and the relationship between women abuse and their socio-demographic characteristics. Design: The present study follows a cross sectional descriptive research design. Setting: the study was conducted in three settings in Tanta City: the Family Court, the Psychological Counseling Centers, and out - patient clinics in Tanta University Hospital. Subjects: The study subjects were 175 women. Tools: Three tools were used Socio-demographic sheet, Woman abuse structured interview questionnaire, to measure level and type of women abused, The Arabic version of Health, wellness and quality of life questionnaire. Results: More than half of the women experienced mild level of abuse. Sexual abuse was the most common types that assaulted by their husbands. A negative correlation was found between all types of women abuse and their quality of life. In addition, variety of socio- demographic characteristics of the women had a significant relation with women abuse (residence, education level of women and husbands, women and husbands' occupation, and source of income). Recommendations: Training programs for wives and husbands about the effective communication skills integrated workshops about stress management techniques and problems solving skills, as well educational programs about successful and satisfied intimate partner relationships should be developed Mass media can raise women awareness about different available community support services.      

Effect of The Self Learning Module on Knowledge and Practices of Health Team Regarding Water-borne Diseases   
  Hayam Mohammed Abd Elrazak1, Entisar Abo Elghite Elhossiny Elkazeh2, Neamat Mazloum Mohamed3 1 Nursing Specialist, at Kafr El Sheikh General Hospital, 2 Assistant Professor of Community Health Nursing, 3 Lecturer of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt   
Water-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems and they are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. The aim of the study: to evaluate effect of the self-learning module on knowledge and practices of health team workers regarding water-borne diseases. Subjects and Method: Study design: In this study Quasi-experimental design was used. Settings: This study was conducted in three Maternal and Child Health Care Centers and one Rural Health Unit. Study subjects: All health team who worked in the previous sitting were included in the study involved: community health nurses, health officers (physician), environmental health technicians (sanitarians) and medical laboratory technicians. Tools of data collection: Three tools were used for data collection Tool I: Socio-demographic characteristic of health team workers. Tool II: Knowledge regarding water- borne diseases: This tool composed of two parts: Part (1): Knowledge regarding water borne diseases for all categories of health team workers. Part (2): Knowledge for each specific categories of health team regarding water borne diseases. Tool III: A self-reported practice of health team regarding the water borne diseases. Results: The total sample size was (170) health workers. The majority of them were nurses (74.7%), while the health officer, environmental health technicians, and the laboratory health technicians represent (5.9 %, 10.6% & 8.8% respectively). Regarding the practice there were statistically significant differences in the total practices regarding the water-borne diseases pre and post-implementation of self-learning modules for community health nurses, environmental health technicians as p (P < 0.05).Conclusions: This study concluded that the self-learning module has a positive effect on improving knowledge and practices of health team workers regarding water-borne diseases. Recommendations: The finding of the present study recommended that, there was a need for continues training programs for health team workers about water-borne diseases. .      

Effect of Management Program on Nursing Staff Leading Role and Compliance to Follow Safety Measures at Intensive Care Units   
  Samah Aboelenein Abdallah, Assistant lecturer of Nursing Service Administration Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University Fouada Mohamed Shabaan, Professor of Nursing Service Administration Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University Samar Hosny Ghadery, Assistant Professor of Nursing Service Administration Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University Maha Eid Shokier, Lecturer of Nursing Service Administration Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University   
Management program on nursing staff leading role and compliance to follow safety measures is an important component help to protect nursing staff from work related risks. Goal of safety program is to keep staff nurses safe and lead them toward safety actions, so they can help them to gain knowledge, and skills to deliver safe and quality care. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of management program on nursing staff leading role and compliance to follow safety measures at intensive care units. Study was conducted at all ICUs of Tanta Emergency Hospital. The total number of study sample was (n=100) nursing staff working in ICUs at Tanta Emergency Hospital, including charge nurses (n=30) and bedside nurses (n=70). Twoo tools were used for the collection of data: (1) Nursing Staff Performance Scale and (2) Nursing Staff Knowledge Questionnaire. The results of this study revealed that minority (26.7%) of charge nurses showed satisfactory level of practice for leading role pre-program, improved to be majority (86.7%) post-program. Few (41.4%) bedside nurses had satisfactory level of total compliance to follow safety measures practice pre-program, improved to majority (88.6%) post-program. Nursing staff (48%) had poor level of total knowledge pre-program, but the majority (92%) showed good level of total knowledge post program. Therefore, the study recommended that conduct regular training programs, workshops and seminars for nursing staff to refresh their knowledge, skills and experiences related to leading role and safety measures.      

Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors among Women Based on the Health Belief Model and Self-Efficacy in Tanta City   
  1Neamat Mazloum Mohamed, 2Afaf AbdElaziz Basal, 3Lulah Abd El-Wahab Abd El- Aty Hassan, 4Amaal Mohamed Ahmed El-Zeftawy 1,3,4Community Health Nursing Department, Tanta University, Egypt 2Medical-Surgical, Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt   
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem among women that lessens the quality of life and takes up many financial assets for its prevention and treatment. The aim of the study: was to identify osteoporosis preventive behaviors among women based on the health belief model and self-efficacy in Tanta city. Subjects and method: Study design: - In this study, the descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Study settings: - This study was conducted in all outpatient clinics and departments of Medical- Surgical, and Orthopedic, in Tanta University Hospital. In addition, Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Tanta city . Study subjects: The studied subjects were 1200 women who attended the study settings through the study period (six months). Tools of data collection: Four tools were used by the researchers. Tool I: A structured interview schedule which it consisted of three parts: - part one: Personal characteristics, part two: Osteoporosis preventing behaviors and part three: Anthropometric measurements. Tool ІІ: Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS), Tool III: -Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Test (OKAT) and Tool IV: Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES).Results: -Few percentages of the studied women assumed osteoporosis preventive behaviors, and 76.8% of them had poor knowledge about osteoporosis. For the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS), the studied women had the negative belief about their susceptibility to osteoporosis, barriers to exercise, and barriers to calcium intake. In addition, there was a significant difference between positive and negative OHBS, also positive and negative Self- Efficacy Scale (SES) P<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the studied women had a poor score of knowledge about osteoporosis, and only little percentage of them followed osteoporosis preventive behaviors. Recommendations: Educational programs are suggested to encourage primary health care providers to consult women at reproductive age about osteoporosis preventions.      

Relation between Quality of Nursing Work Life and Staff Nurses’ Commitment in Critical Care Units   
  Seham M. Aamer (1), Karima A. Elsayed (2) and Salwa E. Mahmoud (3) (1) B.Sc.N. Benha University – Instructor of Nursing Administration - Faculty of Nursing - Benha University (2) Assistant Professor of Nursing Administration - Faculty of Nursing - Tanta University (3) Lecturer of Nursing Administration - Faculty of Nursing - Benha University   
Quality of nursing work life and staff nurses’ commitment are two issues that should be given paramount importance by nurse managers in any hospital due to the positive influence on nurses' satisfaction, retention, performance and productivity. Aim of the study was to identify relation between quality of nursing work life and staff nurses’ commitment in critical care units at Benha University Hospital. Design: Descriptive correlational design was utilized to meet the purpose of this study. Setting: The study was conducted at Benha University Hospital in Critical Care Units. Study sample was composed of 216 staff nurses. One instrument was used for data collection (Quality of nursing work life and staff nurses’ commitment questionnaire sheet). Results showed that 57.4% of staff nurses had moderate level of quality of nursing work life, 55.6% of staff nurses had moderate level of staff nurses 'commitment. Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a significant positive correlation between quality of nursing work life and staff nurses’ commitment. Recommendation: The study recommended further research for assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions in improving quality of work life among nurses.      

Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Anxiety Level for Nurses Working in Burn ICU Comparing to Nurses Working in Surgical ICU   
  Mervat H. Shalaby, **Hend M. Elazazy, **Om Ibrahem A.Elsaie *Lecturer in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University. **Lecturer in Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University.   
The existence of stress has a negative effect on both the individual and the organization .A variety of relaxation techniques can be used to decrease work related stress and anxiety. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of relaxation techniques as stress management strategies on the level of nurse’s anxiety. The study was carried out in both surgical and burn ICUs at Tanta University Emergency Hospital. The sample consists of all nurses working in surgical ICU (35 nurse with bachelor of nursing degree) and all nurses working in burn ICU (32 nurse with bachelor of nursing degree). Two tools were used. Tool I was psychometric anxiety scale: it was designated to measure the anxiety level and consists of three parts; Part one related to biosociodemographic data of the nurse, part two (Anxiety state assessment tool) which measures anxiety as state or anxiety in the present situation and part three (Anxiety trait assessment tool) which measures anxiety as a trait of the personality. Tool II (behavioral relaxation scale) which is designed to measure the motor element of relaxation behavioral related to voluntary muscles. Data were collected over a period of 4 months. The results revealed that; anxiety level was decreased among nurses who are working in both surgical and burn ICUs after demonstration of relaxation techniques and relaxation behavior for nurses working in burn ICU was higher than those working in surgical ICU after the demonstration. The study recommended practicing stress management strategies for nurses working in all ICUs to reduce their level of anxiety.      

Health promoting behaviors and menopausal symptoms among Egyptians: A cross-sectional study   
  Ehab A. Abo Ali(1) and Ayat S. Abdelraof (2)   
  (1) Community Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University (2) Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University    
Background: Although menopause is a natural stage of women’s life, it is a complicate phenomenon that needs changes in living, mood, and social aspects of life. Menopausal symptoms adversely affect the biological, psychological, and social health of menopausal women. Aim of study: To assess the relation between health promoting life style behaviors and menopausal symptoms among menopausal women. Participants and Methods: Two hundred menopausal women were selected randomly from all attendees presented to outpatient clinics of Tanta University Hospital. For all participants, socio-demographic, medical profile, Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile-II and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) were assessed through self-administered questionnaire or personal interview. Results: The majority of the participants had low levels of health-promoting behaviors. There were significant negative statistical correlations between Lifestyle health-promoting behaviors (total scores and subscales) and menopausal symptoms. Also, the current study concluded that age, educational level, income, marital status, and occupation had significant statistical association with health-promoting behaviors. Conclusion and recommendations: Health promoting behavior correlated negatively with menopausal symptoms in the participant women. Therefore, health education programs about health promoting lifestyles can be used as an appropriate strategy to reduce women’s menopausal symptoms and improve their quality of life.      

Relation between Sense of Self and Recovery Among patients with Mental Illness   
  Essmat Mohamed Gemeay1 and Amal Ibrahim Sabra 2 Assistant Professors of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt   
Building sense of self of persons with mental illness is a significant part of recovery process as a patient identity can be detrimental to recovery. The aim of the study is: To examine the relation between sense of self and recovery among persons with mental illness. Subjects and Method: -Study design: - Descriptive correlational study was used to conduct this study. Study settings: -The study was carried out at outpatient's clinic in Tanta Mental Health Hospital Study subjects: - The target population of this study was composed of 90 persons with mental disorders who were chosen by convenience sample. Tools of data collection: - Data of the study as collected by using three tools:-. Too I:- Socio-demographic and clinical data interview questionnaire, Too II:- Recovery Assessment Scale –Domains and Stages (RAS-DS) and Tools III: Revised version Sense of self scale. Results: -. The main findings of the study revealed that there was highly statistically positive significant correlation between patients' sense of self and recovery from mental illness. Conclusion and recommendations: It can be concluded that patients who experience strong sense of self are more likely to experience more subjective feeling of recovery and study recommended that health care team especially nurses must be to “foster recovery and reconstruction of self for people with mental illnesses.      

Environmental and Health Effects of Benzene Exposure among Egyptian Taxi Drivers   
  Zeinab A. Kasemy ,1 Ghada M. Kamel,2 Gaafar M. Abdel-Rasoul,3 and Ahmed A. Ismail3,4   
  1Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt 2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt 3Industrial Health and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt 4Bureau of Health Promotion, Kansas State Department of Health and Environment, 1000 SW Jackson St., Suite 230, Topeka, KS 66612-1274, USA    
Objectives. To study environmental exposure to benzene as well as hematological effects of benzene exposure in taxi drivers. Background. Exposure to benzene has been associated with adverse health effects, including haematopoietic disorders. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was carried out from the beginning of April 2017, through the end of June 2018, on 280 taxi drivers (the exposed group) and 120 unexposed matched individuals (controls). +e tools included a pre-designed self-administered questionnaire which contained questions about personal data (e.g., age, educational level, and smoking) and exposure data (e.g., duration and nature of exposure). Investigations involved complete blood count. Environmental studies for light-chain aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX components: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) were done. Results. Mean values (ppm) of ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (0.81 ± 0.42, 26.69 ± 0.54, 29.36 ± 2.35, and 25.11 ± 2.06, respectively) in the stations were higher than international permissible levels (P < 0.001). On studying the clinical manifestations during the last two weeks, the prevalence of pallor, dizziness, headache, waist and back pain, fatigue, dry throat, and discomfort was significantly higher in taxi drivers (27.1%, 24.3%, 21.4%, 28.6%, 45.7%, 24.3%, and 25.7%, respectively) than among the controls (6.7%, 4.2%, 6.7%, 10%, 10%, 6.7%, 6.7%, and 9.2%, respectively). For chronic diseases, hypertension was the most prevalent chronic disease among the drivers (17.1%) than the controls (5.8%) (P � 0.002). Regarding self-assessment of health status, 20.0% of taxi drivers reported poor health while 31.4% reported very good health (P < 0.001). MCH (pg), TLC (×103/μl), and platelets (×103/μl) were significantly lower among taxi drivers (26.33 ± 2.31, 6.55 ± 1.38, and 189.07 ± 53.25, respectively) (P = 0.005, <0.001, and <0.001 respectively). Conclusion. Abnormal hematological findings among taxi drivers were found on exposure to benzene. Health of taxi drivers is generally affected. Setting a clinic for periodic checkup and health education for taxi drivers is highly recommended.      

Audiometric Findings in Printing Workers Exposed to Noise and Chemical Agents   
  El-Saka SFa, Abou-ElWafa HSa, Elbestar SFa, Al-Wehedy Aa   
  aDepartment of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt    
Background: The co-exposure to noise and organic solvent mixtures in workplace has an auditory damaging effect. Aim: This study aims to describe audiometric findings in printing workers exposed to noise and mixtures of organic solvents in Mansoura University Printing Press (MUPP). Methods: A comparative cross sectional study in which the study group comprised 106 printing workers at MUPP and a matched comparison group from administrative departments at faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. Noise level was measured. Each participant was subjected to a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and occupational profiles, and use of personal protective measures, then audiometric evaluation using pure tone audiometry. Results: The highest average noise level was obtained from printing and assembly hall in MUPP (88.3±3.3). Audiometric evaluation showed that the mean air and bone conduction thresholds of the right and left ears among MUPP workers were higher than the comparison group at all frequencies. The differences in the median hearing thresholds between the study groups across all frequencies were highly statistically significant (p≤0.01) except for ACT at the frequency of 8000Hz. There was a statistically significant difference between both groups regarding the prevalence of different types of hearing impairment. It was found that 12.3% of MUPP workers and 1.9% of the comparison group had perceptive hearing loss. Among printing workers with perceptive hearing loss, 69.2% were diagnosed as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Conclusion: Effective intervention is recommended to improve the industrial safety of workers experiencing ototoxic effects of solvents combined with noise.      

Abstract The paper attempts to investigate the risk types in Fadama farming, as well as the strategies for risk management utilized by Fadama farmers in Jigawa state, Nigeria. Over 75% of the state landmass is considered arable which make it one of the most agriculturally endowed states in Nigeria. However, the area is confronted by multiple natural, ecological, social and economic problems. This research focus mainly on the challenges and prospects of Fadama agricultural production as well as rural livelihood in the area under study. Three null hypotheses were formulated, and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The sample comprised of 150 professional farmers selected from the total population of 350 through simple random sampling procedure. The instrument used in the research was the self-assessment questionnaire (SAQ) developed by the researcher. The data collected were analyzed using rank ordered correlation coefficient. The findings revealed that, the major risks encountered by Fadama farmers are market related, natural/social and whether related risks. Market related risk constitutes the major peril to Fadama farming with glut as its major features. The strategies for managing risk by Fadama farmers essentially help to minimize probable losses from current production or to manage the consequences of inevitable losses for sustainable development. KEYWORDS: Fadama Farming, Food Security, Irrigation, Risk Analysis and Sustainable Development.      

Food Intoxication in Ready-to-eat Meat Meals and their Risk Hazards   
  Soad A. Ismail1 and Mariam A. Abdel-Wahab2   
  1Dept. of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 2Dept. of Food Safety and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Minia University soadismail@yahoo.com    
Contamination of ready-to-eat food rendering them unacceptable for human consumption has become a global health problem. This study wascarried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat meat meals in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Sixty samples of ready-to-eat meat meals including 20 samples from each of liver, hawawshy and shesh-tawook were randomly collected from restaurants with different hygienic levels in Ismailia Governorate for microbiological indices.Themean values of Staphylococcus aureus counts in the examined samples were 3.03, 2.8 and 2.9 (log10 CFU/g) respectively while themean values ofBacillus cereuscounts were 3.33, 1.97 and 2.6 (log10 CFU/g) respectively.Moreover, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureusand Bacillus cereuswas (50 & 70%),(70 & 65%) and (60 & 50%) in liver, hawawshy and shesh-tawook respectively. In the light of the obtained results, it was recommended that the corresponding authorities should adoptregular inspection, reassessment of the manufacturing of meat products and training of food handlers to improve their hygiene and decrease levels of contamination.      

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