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التجربة التشريعية للجزائر في مجال حماية البيئة من التلوث الصناعي   
  ســـراح حليــتيــم   
  استاذة متعاقدة بجامعة مستغانم الجزائر    
  halitimjuriste27@gmail.com   
 
تعرف البيئة على أنها مجموع العوامل الطبيعية والظواهر التي أوجدها الإنسان من خلال ممارساته و أنشطته والتي تؤثر في ترابط وثيق على التوازن البيئي و يرتبط مفهوم البيئة بعنصرين اثنين يتعلق أولاهما بالبيئة الطبيعية، وتشمل الماء والهواء والتربة، وثانيهما البيئة الاصطناعية، وهي تشمل كل ما أوجده تدخل الإنسان وتعامله مع المكونات الطبيعية للبيئة، كالمدن والمصانع . وقد يترتب على نشاطات الإنسان المختلفة تغييرا في النظام البيئي لاسيما ما ينتج عن المدن الصناعية والذي قد يخلف تلوثا على عدة مستويات قد تمس تلوث الهواء أو الماء أو التربة مما يؤثر على التوازن البيئي ، فيرتبط حماية البيئة بمختلف الأنشطة الصناعية ، بحيث كان لابد من العمل على إيجاد السبل الوقائية التي تهدف إلى الحفاظ على البيئة من أثار هذه الأنشطة وهذا راجع الى اعتبارها السبب الأول في حدوث التلوث البيئي نظرا لما يترتب منه عن المخلفات الصناعية المسببة للتلوث بشتى أنواعه، الأمر الذي جعل بالمشرع الجزائري ينتهج السياسة التشريعية كسبيل للحد من انعكاسات التلوث الصناعي على البيئة وهذا بفرض التدابير الخاصة بهدف حماية البيئة من كل آثر ينجم عن استغلال العقار الصناعي. و سنحاول من خلال هذا البحث الاهتمام بالجانب التشريعي لحماية البيئة بخصوص النشاطات الصناعية وكيف عالج المشرع الجزائري مشكل التلوث البيئي الناجم عن التلوث الصناعي، وهذا من خلال مختلف التدابير الوقائية واللاحقة في حماية البيئة من التلوث الصناعي      

 
Graphene oxide/polyaniline/manganese dioxide ternary nanocomposites, facile synthesis, characterization, and application for indigo carmine removal   
  Ali. H. Gemeay, Rehab G. Elsharkawy, Eman F. Abo elfetoh   
  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt    
  relsharkawy@yahoo.com   
 
graphene- based polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites have attracted a great deal of interest due to their new properties or enhanced performance during the past few years. The graphene oxide/ MnO2 / polyaniline (GO/ MnO2/ PANI) and graphene/ ammonium persulfate/ polyaniline (GO/ APS/ PANI) composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in a suspension of graphene oxide in acidic solution. The surface modification is confirmed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction patterns, (FTIR) spectra and Thermogravimetric analysis. The efficiency of graphene- polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites, as a new adsorbent, for the adsorptive removal of Indigo carmine (IC) from aqueous solutions, has been evaluated with respect to several experimental conditions including contact time, initial IC concentration, temperature and adsorbent dosage. A comparison of the qt values of all tested polyaniline samples indicated that the maximum adsorption capacities of the four adsorbents follow an order of (GO/ APS/ PANI > GO/ MnO2/ PANI > APS/ PANI > MnO2/ PANI. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The kinetics and isotherm data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and exothermic process.      

 
THE POTENTIAL OF USING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN THE NILE DELTA   
  Abd-Almenem   
  مديرية الزراعة بالغربية    
  tfouda@yahoo.com   
 
The experimental work was carried out at El- Gemmeiza Agric. Res. Station, Gharbia Governorate, in winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation system on soil condetions and Barley crop procution. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangle. Also, tow irrigation levels were used and three surge irrigation systems. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 2133, 1765 and 1289 m3.fed-1 for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by square layout. Grain yield increased from 1.5 Mg.fed-1 under flood to 2.8 Mg.fed-1under sprinkler irrigation. Straw yield increased from 2.3 Mg.fed-1 under flood to 4.1 Mg.fed-1 under sprinkler irrigation. Water use efficiency increased from 0.72 kg.m-3 under flood to 2.07 kg.m-3 under sprinkling method. The conclusion was treatment of square layout at 100% from ETc with continuous irrigation was given the best results.      

 
Urinary Mercury Level, Neurobehavioral Performance And Some Biological Markers In Children With Amalgam Restorations   
  Nahed A A Abu Hamila, Mervat Oreby, Tarek Al-Nimer, Hanaa Hibishy and Mohammed Seleem   
  Department of pedodontics, Faculty of dentistry, Tanta University. 2 Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. 3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University. 4 Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. 5 Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.    
  nahed_abuhamila@dent.tanta.edu.eg   
 
At present, there is a lack of scientific evidence on toxicity from low-level mercury exposure in children. Despite the debate over the safety of dental amalgam fillings, amalgam is still widely used to restore posterior teeth in pediatric dentistry. Hence, this research was carried out to define some potential health effects from dental amalgam on children's health. Children were selected from those attending the Pedodontic clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University. They were subjected to clinical examination, neurobehavioral and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment, urinary mercury level, serum; malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn), and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) measurement. The present study revealed that the mean urinary mercury level was significantly higher in the amalgam group (8.15+0.99 μg/L) than in the control group (3.53+0.94 μg/L). The urinary mercury level in children who had more than two amalgams or had duration 2 years or more was higher than children who had less than 2 amalgams or had duration less than 2 years. There was no difference in IQ between children with and without amalgam fillings. The children who had amalgam restoration were estimated to be more withdrawn, more anxious/depressed, and to have more social problems than the control group. Furthermore, greater attention problems and delinquent/rule-breaking problems were recorded in the children with amalgam filling than in the control children. Also there was significant increase of serum MDA level and significant decrease of serum levels of GSH, Zn, and GABA levels in amalgam group than the control.      

 
Modulation of genotoxicity and endocrine disruptive effects of malathion by dietary honeybee pollen and propolis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)   
  Mohamed M.M. Kandiel a, *, Amel M. El-Asely b , Hasnaa A. Radwan c , Amany A. Abbass b   
  a Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt b Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt c Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt    
  kandiel75@hotmail.com   
 
The present study aimed at verifying the usefulness of dietary 2.5% bee-pollen (BP) or propolis (PROP) to overcome the genotoxic and endocrine disruptive effects of malathion polluted water in Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). The acute toxicity test was conducted in O. niloticus in various concentrations (0–8 ppm); mortality rate was assessed daily for 96 h. The 96 h-LC50 was 5 ppm and therefore 1/5 of the median lethal concentration (1 ppm) was used for chronic toxicity assessment. In experiment (1), fish (n = 8/group) were kept on a diet (BP/PROP or without additive (control)) and exposed daily to malathion in water at concentration of ppm for 96 h ‘‘acute toxicity experiment’’. Protective efficiency against the malathion was verified through chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) and DNA-fragmentation assessment. Survival rate in control, BP and PROP groups was 37.5%, 50.0% and 100.0%, respectively. Fish in BP and PROP groups showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the frequency of CA (57.14% and 40.66%), MN (53.13% and 40.63%) and DNA-fragmentation 53.08%) and 30.00%). BP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced CA (86.33%), MN (82.22%) and DNA-fragmentation (93.11%), prolonged the sperm motility when exposed to 0.01 ppm of pollutant in vitro and increased the estradiol level in females comparing to control. In conclusion, BP can be used as a feed additive for fish prone to be raised in integrated fish farms or cage culture due to its potency to chemo-protect against genotoxicity and sperm-teratogenicity persuaded by malathion-exposure.      

 
Role of cytology and cytoimmunostaining in early detection of mesothelioma in asbestos manufacturing workers   
  Dareen A. Mohamed   
  Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt    
  dareenaziz21@gmail.com   
 
In Egypt, out of all cancer cases, mesothelioma represents 0.5%, and is mainly caused by exposure to asbestos and is currently a problem in Egypt and the incidence is rising . Asbestos manufacturing began in Egypt more than 50 years ago. Early diagnosis is the most rational way to improve the overall efficacy of care for mesothelioma patients, since early detection confers the highest chance of survival. Material and methods : This study includes selected 65 cases with pleural effusion from patients admitted to chest hospital and had history of asbestos exposure in the period 2012–2015 all cases were cytologically and immunocytologically examined by , calretinin, CEA and CK5/6 on cell block . Results : In this study 31% of examined cases were diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma ( calretinin+,CK5/6+), while 21,5% of cases were diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma(calretinin -, CEA+) ,while 47.5% of cases were reactive mesothelial cells (calretinin+,CK5/6-and CEA-) . Conclusion : The diagnosis of mesothelioma can be challenging. If the diagnosis of mesothelioma is suspected, a careful occupational history must be obtained combined with cytological examination and panel of immunostaining of calretinin , CK5/6 and CEA.      

 
Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C patients in Mid Delta, Egypt: a single center study   
  Dina H. Ziada, SherifEl Sadany, HananSoliman, SheriefAbd-Elsalam, MarwaSalama, NehadHawashm ,Amal Selim1, Manal Hamisa2 , NehaL Elmashed3   
  Tropical Medicine, Internal Medicine1, and Radiology Departments2,Oncology3, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University , Egypt    
  nehalelmashad@yahoo.com   
 
Background and aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an increasing incidence worldwide. Cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis is the leading risk factor for HCC. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of HCC among chronic HCV patients in mid delta, Egypt. Patients and methods: During the period between April 2013and January 2015, we screened sequentially all chronic HCV patients attending inpatient wards or outpatient clinic of tropical medicine department in Tanta university hospital for HCC. Individuals with abnormal Ultrasound findings and /or serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level were examined by triphasic computed tomography scanning (CT),and/ or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Among 514 chronic HCV patients enrolled, 108 patients (21%) had focal lesion detected by ultrasonographic examination, 32 patients of them (29.9%) had normal alpha feto protein (AFP) levels. While, 89/514 (17.3%) had elevated AFP>200, 13 of them(14.6%) had no focal lesion on ultrasound examination but further work up showed HCC in 2 of them. Overall HCC diagnosis was confirmed in 103 cases. Regarding our 103 HCC patients, 54/103(52.4%) were advanced HCC (stage C or D), 49/103(47.9%) treated with different modalities as follow: 5/49(10.2%) surgical excision, 15/49(30.7%) radiofrequency (RF) ablation, 8/49(16.3%) alcoholic injection, and 21/49(42.8%) transarterial chemo embolization (TACE). Conclusion: the prevalence of HCC in our Chronic HCV was 22%. Only 19.4% of them were in early stage candidate for curative treatment. A national surveillance program for chronic HCV Egyptian patients for HCC is highly recommended.      

 
Possible curative role of azithromycin administration in Escherichia coli-induced nephrotoxicity of young albino rats: histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric study   
  Maysa F. Salem   
  prof. of anatomy and embryology / Tanta university    
  maysafahmy49@yahoo.com   
 
Introduction Escherichia coli is normal commensal bacteria in human gut. Enterotoxins of E. coli O157:H7 lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome and outbreak of diarrhea from eating undercooked hamburger and unpasteurized dairy products. Aim Assess possible curative effect of azithromycin on nephrotoxicity induced in albino rats. Materials and methods 55 young albino rats aged between 4 - 6 weeks were divided into: Control group included 15 rats and experimental group included 40 rats. Last group was subdivided equally into: subgroup IIa, each rat was orally infected with a toxic strain of E. coli 0157:H7. Bacterial suspension (0.1 ml) was diluted in 2 ml of PBS and delivered directly into the stomach. In subgroup IIb, each rat was administered azithromycin concomitant with the E. coli toxic strain. An azithromycin solution of 0.5 ml was injected intraperitoneally for seven days. Specimens were obtained from kidney and prepared for histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies. Results Subgroup IIa showed atrophied renal glomeruli with congested glomerular tufts. Renal tubules were damaged with hyaline casts and massive blood congestion. Immunohistochemical Subgroup IIa showed strong expression of the immune reaction in the endothelium of glomeruli and interstitial blood capillaries. Tthe electron microscopic study showed distortion, pleomorphism, and effacement of the podocyte foot processes. The basement membrane of blood capillaries showed massive thickening with subendothelial deposits. Subgroup IIb showed improvement in kidney architectures as indicated by the histological and immunohistochemical results. Conclusion Administration of azithromycin plays an effective role in controlling the deleterious effect of E. coli on the kidneys.      

 
أثر تلوث المياه العذبة على البيئة والصحة العمومية   
  بوسماحة الشيخ   
  مدير مخبر البحث في تشريعات حماية النظام البيئي ، نائب العميد المكلف بما بعد التدرج والبحث العلمي والعلاقات الخار جية.    
  Univ.bousmaha@yahoo.com   
 
البيئة هي المحيط الحيوي الذي يشمل الكائنات الحية وما تحتويه من مواد وما يحيط بها من هواء، وماء، وتربة، وما يقيمه الإنسان من منشآت. وبالتالي فإن للبيئة مفهوما قانونيا هام جدا من حيث ضرورة سلامتها، وأيضا بالنسبة لحاجات التطبيق العلمي لقانون حماية البيئة. بالإضافة إلى أهمية أخرى تكمن في حماية عناصر الطبيعة منها الماء لكونه العنصر الحيوي الذي بوجوده تدب الحياة. إن البيئة المناخية في غالبها تتسم بالندرة المائية الطبيعية بسبب المناخ، وتلوث الطبقة المائية، وكذا النمو الديموغرافي المتسارع وزيادة الطلب على الماء، ناهيك عن ازدياد طلب استغلاله في الصناعة والزراعة والبناء، كلها عوامل فاقمت من حدًة وتراجع الثروة المائية. وبروز العديد من الضغوطات التي تهدد ديمومة الموارد المائية ومعوقات تنميتها، لذالك تكتسي الموارد المائية ميزة إستراتيجية في مسار التنمية نظرا لارتباطها الوثيق بالتنمية المستدامة، كونها موردا نادرا وثمينا يتطلب المحافظة عليه، باعتباره أحد أهم مقومات الحياة بأبعادها الاقتصادية والسياسية والاجتماعية أمام ارتفاع درجة حرارة الأرض وتدهور مصادر المياه. إذ يعد تلوث المياه العذبة من أخطر أنواع التلوث البيئي في العالم ، حيث أنها لا تشكل سوى ما نسبته واحد في المائة من إجمالي حجم المياه في العالم. وقد طال التلوث قسماً من تلك المياه بفعل النشاطات الإنسانية الغير مسئولة تجاه الطبيعة، إضافة إلى العوامل الطبيعية الأخرى. وتعتبر مسببات التلوث المائي في العالم واحدة ، لذلك فإن سُبل الحد منها متقاربة تبعاً لنوع ومسببات العناصر الملوثة. لذا فإن هدف هذه الورقة البحثية يدفعنا للتعرف على تلوث المياه العذبة ومن ثمة الوقوف عند أسباب ذلك التلوث وما ينجم عنه من أضرار بيئية وصحية.      

 
أثر تلوث الهواء على البيئة   
  طالبي يمينة   
  عضو مخبر القانون العقاري والبيئة - جامعة عبد الحميد إبن باديس مستغانم - الجزائر    
  labo.envir14@live.fr   
 
يعتبر موضوع حماية البيئة والحفاظ عليها من أكثر التحديات والأمور التي تشغل الإنسان اليوم، فلم يعد مقبولًا أنه يجب على الإنسانية تعديل نمط حياتها لتواكب التكنولوجيا العصرية، بل أصبح من الضروري أن تُعدل التكنولوجيا لتتماشى وتحمي البيئة المحيطة بنا، وأصبحت البيئة والحفاظ عليها ضمن قيود وقوانين بيئية صارمة هي من الأولويات. يعتبر الهواء من العناصر المكونة للبيئة، لأنه بلا مكان ولو أنه موجود بكل مكان فهو غير قابل للتنوع. إذ يتركز تلوث الهواء في المناطق الكبيرة التي بها كثافة سكانية عالية خاصة في الدول النامية التي تكون فيها القوانين المحافظة على البيئة غير صارمة أو غير موجودة على الإطلاق. ولكن في المقابل حتى المناطق الآهلة بالسكان في الدول المتقدمة يصلها التلوث وتكون نتائجه ضارة بيئيا وصحيا. ومن الممكن أن تكون هذه الملوثات في شكل جزيئات صلبة أو قطرات سائلة أو غازات أو ما يتعرض له الغلاف الجوي لمواد كيماوية أو جسيمات مادية أو مركبات بيولوجيـة، إضافة إلى أنها قد تكون طبيعية أو ناتجة عن نشاط الإنسان لمواد في الهواء يمكن أن تسبب الضرر للإنسان والبيئة.      

 
Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by exposure to antineoplastic drugs in lymphocytes of oncology nurses and pharmacists   
  El-Ebiary AA1, Abuelfadl AA, Sarhan NI   
  Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt    
  a.ebiary@gmail.com   
 
The hazards of handling antineoplastic drugs have been raised and discussed in several studies. Introduction of new antineoplastics together with abuse of safety standards have contributed to the exposure risk for personnel who handle these substances. Interactions of antineoplastic drugs with biological structures vary according to the drug(s) and the individual's genetic susceptibility. This study was carried out to evaluate the genome damage induced by exposure to antineoplastic drugs in nurses (n = 20) and pharmacists (n = 18) working in the Oncology Department of Tanta Cancer Center. Thirty subjects matched in age, gender and smoking habit were selected as controls. Both chromosomal aberration analysis and micronucleus assay were used to evaluate genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the study subjects. The numbers of aberrant lymphocytes, as well as chromosomal aberration and micronuclei frequencies, were significantly increased in exposed personnel in comparison to matched controls. Compared with pharmacists, nurses showed notably higher level of chromosome damage. On the other hand, no significant difference in micronuclei frequency was observed between nurses and pharmacists. Correlation analyses pointed to the influence of age and duration of occupational exposure on the level of chromosome damage among exposed subjects. The results of this study confirmed that handling antineoplastic drugs without appropriate precautions imposed a genotoxic risk for exposed healthcare workers. These results address the need for regular biomonitoring of exposed personnel. In addition, they call attention to the need for proper implementation of intervention measures aiming to eliminate or significantly reduce worker exposure and prevent untoward biological effects.      

 
Hazardous Effects of Aluminum Chloride Contamination on Testes of Young Rats   
  Manal E. El-Sawaf   
  professor of human anatomy and embryology, tanta faculty of medicine    
  elsawafmanal@yahoo.com   
 
Background: Aluminium salts are substances found naturally in water and food or present in the components of drugs. Al was proved to be accumulated in target organs on long term ingestion even in very low non-toxic doses. Aim of the work: To study the damaging effects of chronic administration of a low dose of Al on testes of young rats and the protective role of vitamin E . Material & Methods: Twelve male rats aged three weeks were used in this study and were divided into three groups; group (I) was served as control, group (II) was given aluminium chloride orally while group (III) was given both AlCh3 and vitamin E . The treatments were given daily for 18 weeks then rats were weighed before being sacrificed. Testes were collected weighed and then processed for light microscopic examination. Results: Testes collected from group (II) rats showed significant reduction of absolute and relative weights compared to that of the control, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules ,degenerative changes of spermatogonia and necrotic spermatozoa. Tunica albuginea was thickened, lamellated and irregular with subcapsular cavities and dilated congested blood vessels. Testes collected from group (III) rats showed higher absolute and relative weights than group (II) with restoration of spermatogonia and tunica albuginea.Conclusion: Aluminium chloride induced testicular damage in chronic use of low doses which was alleviated by the concomitant use of vitamin E.      

 
إدراك الشباب الجامعي المصري لمخاطر الشائعات على شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي دراسة في تأثير الشخص الثالث   
  علياء عبدالفتاح رمضان   
  AP شعبة الصحافة - قسم الإعلام التربوي - كلية التربية النوعية    
  aliaaramadan11@gmail.com   
 
تلعب الشائعات دوراً كبيراً في المجتمعات الإنسانية، ويتعاظم هذا الدور إما بالإيجاب أو السلب، حسب نوع الشائعة، والأشخاص الذين تستهدفهم، والأهداف التي وجدت من أجلها، ويتقاذف الناس الشائعة كما يقذفون الكرة، ولا تجد هذه الشائعة ما يمنعها من أن تتدحرج من مكان إلى آخر، معلنة عن نموها، وفي ظل انتشار مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي والإعلام الجديد أصبحت الشائعات معلومة يتم بثها بضغطة زر واحد لتصيب الآلاف والملايين من العقول وتصبح «خبراً» قابلاً للتصديق، طالما أن هناك بيئة خصبة لنموها وفي ظل الأحداث السياسية والاجتماعية التي تنامت مؤخراً بالعالم أصبحت الشائعات أكثر انتشاراً وتوسعاً بل ومن الممكن أن تتسبب في إحداث الأزمات أو إطلاق التصريحات واتخاذ القرارات بناء على شائعات تناولتها وسائل الإعلام غير مستندة على أدلة واضحة وقطعية، وبين مواقع التواصل وتطبيقات المحمول الجديدة، تحاول الجهات الحكومية والمسئولة تتبع المصادر والرد والنفي على تلك الشائعات التي أصبح المجتمع يتناقلها غير مبالٍ بالمصدر أو المصداقية الحقيقية. وتختلف الإشاعة في طبيعتها وهدفها والمجتمع المستهدف من ورائها فبعض الإشاعات تكون ذات صبغة سياسية ومن أهدافها تقويض الأمن العام في المجتمع وخلق روح من التسخط والعداء تجاه ولاة الأمور ، وقد تكون اقتصاديه تهدف إلي تشكيك المستهلك في نوعية المنتج وجودته وتأثيره علي الصحة مما يؤدي إلي عزوف شريحة من شرائح المجتمع عن شراء أو استخدام هذا المنتج ، أو تكون إشاعة أخلاقية تستهدف شخصية عامة ويتم نشرها لتشويه صورته إمام الجمهور المشجع له وتتسبب هذا النوع من الإشاعات بمشاكل اجتماعية ونفسية وأحياناً قانونية للشخصية العامة المستهدفة ،      

 
   

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